Asteraceae (Papatyagiller)


Dolaşım

BitkilerPapatya takımı › Papatyagiller

Genel bilgiler

Tek, iki ya da çok yıllık otlar ile çalılardan oluşan bir ailedir. Yapraklar almaşlı ya da zaman zaman karşılıklı, kenarları düz ya dişli, biçimleri loblu ya da bölünmüştür. Çiçekler genelde başçıklarda çok sayıda küme halindedir. Meyve bazen sorguca bağlı kapçık formundadır. Orkidegiller ile birlikte en kalabalık bitki ailesidir. Aile dünyanın tamamında yayılış gösterir. Marul, ayçiçeği, enginar gibi mutfak değeri olan bitkiler bu aileye bağlıdır. Ayrıca civanperçemi, papatya, aynısafa gibi çok sayıda tıbbi değere sahip bitkiyi de barındırır. Tohum dağıtma stratejileri nedeniyle çok sayıda papatyagil türü dünyanın tamamında işgalci durumdadır, ilimizde bunun en başat örneği Erigeron (şifaotu) cinsidir.

Cins anahtarı

Cyanus (Gökbaş)
Dittrichia (Sarıot)
Galinsoga (Beşpat)
Jacobaea (Su kanaryaotu)
Podospermum (Tekesakalı)
Rhaponticoides (Tülüşah)
Scorzoneroides (Yalankanık)
Symphyotrichum (Simpati)
Tagetes (Kadifeçiçeği)
Tephroseris (Ümbülükçiçeği)
Tripolium (Bataklıkpapatyası)
1. Flowers all ligulate, ligules 5 toothed; plants with latex Group A
1. Flowers not all ligulate, at least central ones tubular; plants without latex
-2. Leaves and/or phyllaries spiny, i.e. pricking (spines rarely hooked) Group B
-2. Neither leaves nor phyllaries spiny
–3. Capitula radiate, marginal flowers usually with 3-(rarely 5 or more) toothed ligules obviously longer than disc flowers
—4. Ligules bright yellow to orange Group C
—4. Ligules white, cream, pink, red, purple or blue Group D
–3. Capitula discoid or disciform, marginal flowers tubular sometimes elongated, widened and radiant but usually ± cylindrical, or minutely ligulate and shorter than disc flowers
—5. Receptacle paleaceous or long hairy (hairs at least ⅓ as long as corolla) Group E
—5. Receptacle naked or at most with margins of alveolae (pits) ciliate or toothed Group F
Group A
1. Plants stout and thistle like; stems spinosely winged 95. Scolymus (Akçakız)
1. Plants not thistle like; stems never spinosely winged
-2. Achenes epappose or bearing a pappus of scales or aristate but not of hairs
–3. Pappus absent from all achenes
—4. Achenes subulate, outer ones persistent ± curved, stellately patent and wholly enclosed within enfolding phyllaries; inner achenes deciduous 111. Rhagadiolus (Çatlakçanak)
—4. Achenes oblong, ± straight, not enfolded by erect phyllaries, all deciduous 126. Lapsana (Şebrek)
–3. Pappus, at least of inner achenes, of scales or stiff subpaleaceous aristae
—5. Capitula solitary on leafless scapes; median achenes winged, inner ones terete 101. Hyoseris (Semirten)
—5. Capitula several on branched stems leafy at least near base
—-6. Phyllaries scarious at least at margins
—–7. Leaves lyrate pinnatisect; phyllaries ovate, ± obtuse, cartilaginous with narrow scarious margins 96. Hymenonema (Salof)
—-6. Phyllaries not at all scarious
—–8. Stems with lateral branches overtopping the terminal capitulum ± dichasially, peduncles bearing several narrow bracts below involucre; phyllaries narrowly lanceolate 99. Tolpis (Hoşkıskı)
—–8. Stems, peduncles and phyllaries not as above
——9. Leaves oblanceolate, usually toothed; achenes included within involucre at maturity
——-10. Fruiting capitula ± globose; marginal achenes coronate, enfolded by phyllaries, inner achenes bearing subulate scales ± ½ as long as achene; flowers yellow 110. Hedypnois (Sünnetlice)
——-10. Fruiting capitula oblong; marginal achenes not enfolded by phyllaries, all bearing short paleae c. ⅓ as long as achene; flowers blue, rarely white 98. Cichorium (Hindiba)
-2. Achenes, at least some of them, bearing a pappus of short hairs, rarely achenes merely ciliate at apex
–11. Pappus of inner achenes consisting of plumose hairs (sometimes broadened and ± paleaceous at base)
—12. Achenes, at least central ones, distinctly beaked
—-13. Phyllaries 1 seriate or, if 2-3 seriate, then ± similar and subequal
—–14. Pappus of all achenes hairy; receptacle naked or shortly ciliate
——15. Leaves pinnately net veined, rarely entire; phyllaries connate below; achenes ± compressed; beak swollen at base 109. Urospermum (Acıyemlik)
——15. Leaves ± parallel veined, attenuate and entire; phyllaries free to base; achenes fusiform; beak not swollen 103. Tragopogon (Yemlik)
—–14. Pappus of outer achenes of 3-7 aristate scales; receptacle bearing a few long filiform paleae 104. Geropogon (Melezyemlik)
—-13. Phyllaries in 2 or more series, subequal but dissimilar, or ± regularly imbricate
—–16. Receptacle paleaceous, paleae linear lanceolate and membranous 105. Hypochaeris (Dağmarulu)
—–16. Receptacle naked
——17. Outer phyllaries ovate, cordate, ± as long as inner linear lanceolate ones 108. Helminthotheca (Billurdüğme)
——17. Outer and inner phyllaries similar, imbricate 106. Leontodon (Aslandişi)
—12. Achenes truncate, attenuate or subrostrate
—-18. Indumentum, in part at least, consisting of branched hairs; marginal achenes sometimes coronate or fimbriate
—–19. Outer achenes ± straight, striate or ribbed; pappus persistent; indumentum usually containing stalked forked hairs 106. Leontodon (Aslandişi)
—–19. Outer achenes often curved, obscurely 5 ribbed; pappus usually deciduous; indumentum containing anchor shaped glochidiate hairs 107. Picris (Şiro)
—-18. Indumentum, where present, entirely of simple, usually lanate hairs; achenes all bearing a plumose pappus 102. Scorzonera (İskorçina)
–11. Pappus, at least of inner achenes, consisting of simple smooth scabrous or barbellate hairs or cilia
—20. Outer achenes incurved, longer than involucre, pappus of short cilia c. 0,2 mm 111. Rhagadiolus (Çatlakçanak)
—20. Achenes shorter than involucre and concealed within it; pappus hairs longer
—-21. Apex of achene beaked, or narrowed and subrostrate
—–22. Capitula solitary, rarely few, on leafless scapes; leaves radical rosulate
——23. Achenes muricate or tuberculate above 127. Taraxacum (Karahindiba)
——23. Achenes smooth or spiculate throughout 129. Crepis (Kıskıs)
—–22. Capitula several or numerous on leafy stems
——24. Achenes ± terete or angular, apex of beak somewhat thickened but not flattened and disc like
——-25. Beak articulated and deciduous from achene; capitula subsessile on virgate branches, or stems divaricately branched with persistent and spinescent peduncles 128. Chondrilla (Karakavuk)
——-25. Beak persistent on achene, not articulated; capitula on non spinescent peduncles and never all subsessile 129. Crepis (Kıskıs)
——24. Achenes compressed, apex of beak expanded into pappus disc
——-26. Median and upper cauline leaves with distinct narrow decurrent auricles 0,3-3,5 cm long; capitula 4-8 flowered; flowers yellow 124. Scariola [Lactuca] (Marul)
——-26. Median and upper cauline leaves auriculate or not but auricles not decurrent, or, if very shortly so, then flowers not yellow; capitula 5-50 flowered
——–27. Pappus double, with an outer ring of very short (0,1-0,3 mm) smooth hairs (lens!) and inner series of long, copious, capillary, scabrous or barbellate hairs
———28. Phyllaries 7-9, 2 seriate, outer very short and inconspicuous, inner much longer, forming a narrowly cylindrical involucre; flowers always yellow; plant shortly rhizomatous 125. Mycelis [Lactuca] (Marul)
———28. Phyllaries 9-22, 3-5 seriate, more regularly imbricate, forming a narrowly obconic to campanulate involucre; flowers blue, lilac, mauve or whitish, or if yellow then plant with tuberous rootstock and/or c. 20 phyllaries
———-29. Beak of achene slender, 1,7-14,5 mm, paler than body of achene; plants with tuberous rootstock
———–30. Involucre 18-36 mm long; achenes 2-3 mm broad, much compressed; beak 8,5-14,5 mm; inner pappus 10,5-12 mm. 122. Steptorhamphus [Lactuca] (Marul)
——–27. Pappus simple, of a single series of long, copious, subequal, capillary, scabrous or shortly barbellate hairs
———31. Beak of achene stout, 2-4 mm, concolorous with body of achene; achenes slightly compressed, gradually attenuate into the beak 120. Mulgedium [Lactuca] (Marul)
———31. Beak of achene slender, 2,5-13 mm, usually paler than body of achene; achenes ± strongly compressed, beak ± abruptly differentiated 123. Lactuca (Marul)
—-21. Apex of achene beakless, rounded or truncate
—–32. Indumentum, in part at least, consisting of stellate hairs; achenes distinctly 10 ribbed; pappus sordid or brownish
——33. Ribs of achene running to its apex, ± crenate at margin; pappus 1 seriate; plants stoloniferous or not
——-34. Leaves ± green at least above, rarely densely stellate hairy, mostly basal, rosetted; perennial, usually stoloniferous; pappus hairs scabrous, persistent, fragile 116. Pilosella (Tırnakotu)
——33. Ribs of achene confluent with an obscure ring at its apex, smooth at margin; pappus 2 seriate; non stoloniferous perennials 116. Hieracium (Şahinotu)
—–32. Indumentum, if present, of eglandular or glandular hairs, not stellate; achenes variously ribbed, sometimes 10 (in some Crepis species); pappus usually white, sometimes yellow or brownish
——35. Characters differently combined, but plants never stoloniferous
——-36. Achenes oblong or columnar, terete or somewhat flattened
——–37. Achenes 4 ribbed, ribs of outer ones tuberculate throughout; pappus deciduous on a ring; phyllaries grading into bracts on peduncles 113. Reichardia (Karasakız)
——–37. Characters differently combined, achenes never tuberculate or only slightly tuberculate above; phyllaries never grading into bracts on peduncles
———38. Pappus hairs rather stiff, bristle like; leaves parallel veined 102. Scorzonera (İskorçina)
———38. Pappus hairs soft; leaves pinnately veined
———-39. Achenes (5-)10-20(-30) ribbed; flowers yellow or rarely white (but plants not with ovate hastate leaves); inner phyllaries ± subequal, outer ones much shorter
———–40. Achenes smooth or spiculate throughout; inner phyllaries never horned below apex 129. Crepis (Kıskıs)
———–40. Achenes slightly tuberculate or spinulose above; inner phyllaries sometimes horned below apex 127. Taraxacum (Karahindiba)
——-36. Achenes obovate or oblanceolate, ± strongly compressed; base of capitula (but not peduncles) becoming thickened and hardened in fruit 112. Sonchus (Eşekgevreği)
Group B
Leaves and/or phyllaries spiny (pricking!); capitula not all ligulate (being discoid, radiant or radiate)
1. Capitula unisexual; male capitula in globose compound heads arranged in terminal spike like inflorescences; female capitula solitary or few, axillary, ovoid, covered with hooked spines 6. Xanthium (Pıtrak)
1. Capitula bisexual, all alike, without hooked spines (except Arctium)
-2. Marginal flowers ligulate; style usually without a ring of minute hairs below the bifurcation
–3. Leaves or outer phyllaries only spinosely tipped; pappus never hairy
—4. Ligules yellow; leaves unarmed, outer phyllaries spine tipped 9. Pallenis (Dikenotu)
—4. Ligules white; leaves only spinosely tipped, phyllaries not spiny 42. Anthemis (Papatya)
-2. Marginal and central flowers tubular or infundubilar, often deeply 5 fid; style with a ring of minute hairs below the bifurcation (except Anthemis)
–5. Phyllaries terminating in hooked spines; lower leaves ovate cordate and not spinose 59. Arctium (Löşlek)
–5. Phyllaries not terminating in a hooked spine though sometimes recurved or reflexed; leaves not as above
—6. Capitula 1 flowered and clustered into ± globose compound heads (pseudocephalia)
—-7. Perennial or biennial plants with prickly leaves; compound heads not involucrate 92. Echinops (Topuz)
—6. Capitula several-many flowered, free or clustered into compound heads
—-8. Phyllaries and paleae, if present, remaining free and scarcely indurated; capitula differently shaped; latex absent
—–9. Upper surface of leaves covered with spinules 62. Cirsium (Köygöçüren)
—–9. Upper surface of leaves not covered with spinules
——10. Pappus of plumose hairs or bristles
——-11. Stem continuously winged
——–12. Receptacle deeply pitted, margin of pits denticulate 60. Onopordum (Kangal)
——–12. Receptacle bearing long hairs, not deeply pitted
———13. Median phyllaries with pinnatisect terminal spine; hilum slit like; annuals 63. Picnomon (Kılçıkdiken)
———13. Median phyllaries wth simple terminal spine or mucro; hilum oval; biennials or perennials, rarely annuals 62. Cirsium (Köygöçüren)
——-11. Stems not continuously winged (leaf bases sometimes shortly decurrent)
——–14. Mature achenes densely hairy
———15. Phyllaries with whitish scarious margins; leaf margin not spiny 79. Centaurea (Peygamberçiçeği)
———15. Phyllaries without whitish scarious margins; leaf margin spiny or spinulose
———-16. Inner phyllaries patent, longer than flowers, petaloid; outer and median phyllaries not strongly differentiated 87. Carlina (Keygana)
——–14. Mature achenes ± glabrous
———17. Median phyllaries with pinnately or palmately divided spiny appendages 79. Centaurea (Peygamberçiçeği)
———17. Median phyllaries differently appendaged or ending in a simple spine
———-18. Apex of achene bearing a distinct umbo (i.e. an abruptly raised, rounded, conical or grooved waxy process)
———–19. Inner pappus hairs longer and stouter than the rest; leaves not spiny 69. Jurinea (Geyikgöbeği)
———–19. Inner pappus not differentiated thus; leaf margin usually spiny
————20. Base of corolla tube only slightly widened; umbo conical, solid at apex; hilum oval 62. Cirsium (Köygöçüren)
———-18. Apex of achene rounded or truncate, without an umbo
———–21. Phyllaries more than (0,7-)1 cm broad; stems bearing one or few large (4-5 cm or more) capitula; achenes ribbed or angular 57. Cynara (Enginar)
——10. Pappus scabrous, barbellate, paleaceous at least in lower ½ or coronate
——-23. Outer phyllaries foliaceous, inner ones with pinnate spiny appendages; pappus of 10 outer bristles and a series of shorter hairs within; achenes longitudinally ribbed, hilum lateral 82. Cnicus [Centaurea] (Peygamberçiçeği)
——-23. Phyllaries, pappus and achenes not as above
——–24. Receptacle not deeply pitted; paleaceous, bristly or long hairy
———25. Leaves not spiny
———-26. Receptacle paleaceous
———–27. Pappus of numerous barbellate hairs; inner phyllaries not or scarcely scarious, greenish or straw coloured; perennials 69. Jurinea (Geyikgöbeği)
———-26. Receptacle long hairy
———–28. Pappus of inner achenes of equal sized hairs or central ones shorter; phyllaries various 79. Centaurea (Peygamberçiçeği)
———25. Leaves spiny
———-29. Receptacle paleaceous
———–30. Pappus paleaceous; phyllaries spiny not membranous
————31. Capitula c. 0,5 cm broad, numerous in dense cymose corymbs; flowers blue; perennial 86. Cardopatium (Kurtludiken)
————31. Capitula more than 0,5 cm broad, solitary at branch ends or in loose corymbs; flowers yellow or purple; annual 83. Carthamus (Aspir)
———–30. Pappus coronate; phyllaries membranous margined, not spiny 42. Anthemis (Papatya)
———-29. Receptacle and pappus bristly or hairy
———–32. Pappus persistent; dwarf, whitish tomentose alpine 79. Centaurea (Peygamberçiçeği)
———–32. Pappus deciduous; habit not as above
————33. Hairs of pappus fused to a ring at base and deciduous with it
————-34. Stems unwinged; phyllaries spiny margined 61. Silybum (Devedikeni)
————-34. Stems winged; phyllaries not spiny margined
————–35. Filaments monadelphous, anthers not tailed; achenes subtetragonal, smooth and glossy at first, with 4 mucilaginous grooves at maturity; annuals 68. Tyrimnus (Dulkarıgömleği)
————–35. Filaments free, anthers tailed; achenes somewhat compressed, sometimes mucilaginous but not in grooves; annuals, biennials or perennials 67. Carduus (Eşekdikeni)
Group C
Capitula radiate; ligules yellow or orange; plants not spiny
1. Receptacle paleaceous or bearing long hairs at least half as long as disc flowers
-2. Leaves all opposite; outer phyllaries spathulate, patent, densely covered with stalked glands 2. Sigesbeckia (Sarıteçan)
-2. Leaves, at least upper ones, alternate; outer phyllaries not as above
–3. Tall (1-2 m) robust annual or perennial herbs; leaves broadly ovate cordate
—4. Paleae linear, almost bristle like; pappus small, coronate, persistent 7. Telekia (Puğre)
—4. Paleae ovate lanceolate; pappus of 2 lanceolate, deciduous scales (cultivated) 1. Helianthus (Ayçiçeği)
–3. Small or medium sized (seldom over 50 cm) annual or perennial herbs; leaves not as above
—5. Pappus of bristles or short scales; phyllaries relatively large and spreading or with bristly appendages; leaves entire or 1 pinnatisect; annuals
—-6. Involucre foliaceous, phyllaries lanceolate, enite; ligules 3-9 mm 8. Asteriscus [Pallenis] (Dikenotu)
—5. Pappus absent, coronate or auriculate; phyllaries with entire or lacerate scarious margins; leaves dissected, seldom entire; annuals or perennials
—-7. Capitula several or numerous in corymbs, rarely solitary; paleae ± obtuse and fringed or acute, midrib not excurrent at apex; pappus always absent; leaves sometimes ± vermiform 46. Achillea (Civanperçemi)
—-7. Capitula solitary at branch ends or on ± naked peduncles; paleae mucronate or acuminate with excurrent midrib; pappus often coronate or auriculate, sometimes absent; leaves never vermiform 42. Anthemis (Papatya)
1. Receptacle naked
-8. Pappus present, consisting, in part at least, of hairs
–9. Involucre 1-2 seriate; phyllaries, at least inner ones, ± equal in size; style branches always truncate
—10. Capitula solitary, scapes bearing numerous purplish scales; leaves ovate, cordate, all radical but not developed at flowering time 38. Tussilago (Öksürükotu)
—10. Capitula solitary, several or many borne on leafy stems
—-11. Phyllaries ± lanceolate, acuminate ± spreading, free from each other; involucre without a calyculus of small bracts at base 36. Doronicum (Kaplanotu)
—-11. Phyllaries oblong, acute, ± erect, laterally coherent; involucre usually with a calyculus of small free bracts near base 37. Senecio (Kanaryaotu)
–9. Involucre in more than 2 series, imbricate; style branches usually rounded or pointed, sometimes truncate
—12. Pappus with an outer series of minute scales at base of hairs 12. Pulicaria (Yaraotu)
—12. Pappus consisting entirely of hairs
—-13. Ligules inconspicuous, only ± as long as pappus hairs
—–14. Achenes of disc flowers fertile; medium or tall annuals 33. Conyza (Çakalotu)
—-13. Ligules conspicuous, longer than pappus hairs
—–15. Undersides of leaves showing a fine network of dark veins; style branches lanceolate at apex 25. Solidago (Altınbaşak)
—–15. Undersides of leaves without a fine network of dark veins; style branches rounded or truncate at apex
——16. Style branches truncate; basal leaves usually ovate, cordate; phyllaries 2-3 seriate, subequal 36. Doronicum (Kaplanotu)
——16. Style branches rounded; basal leaves oblong or oblanceolate; phyllaries 3-7 seriate, gradually imbricate 11. Inula (Andızotu)
-8. Pappus absent or nearly so, not hairy
–17. Achenes all ± alike, generally bearing a rim or unilateral corona at apex; perennials; capitula few to numerous in corymbs, rarely solitary 51. Tanacetum (Pireotu)
–17. Achenes dimorphic, those of ray flowers differently shaped from inner ones; pappus completely absent; annuals or rarely perennials, capitula solitary at branch ends
—18. Ray achenes triquetrous or winged, inner ones oblong, longitudinally ribbed or ± winged; phyllaries oblong or ovate, ± obtuse, distinctly scarious 49. Chrysanthemum [Glebionis] (Kasımçiçeği)
—18. Ray achenes larger or more spreading, inner ones strongly curved or annular, transversely muricate or rugose; phyllaries linear lanceolate, acuminate, narrowly scarious 40. Calendula (Aynısefa)
Group D
Capitula radiate; ligules white, pink, red, or purple; plants not spiny
1. Receptacle paleaceous (weakly so in Uechtritzia), paleae ovate or oblong or narrower, bristle like and present at least on inner part of receptacle
-2. Herbs with leafy stems; leaves variously shaped but not ovate, cordate; ray flowers white, pink or purple, disc flowers usually yellow, tubular, or, if slightly bilabiate, not more than 6 mm long
–3. Leaves all opposite, simple, ± entire; paleae narrow, bristle like, deciduous; annuals of marshy ground 3. Eclipta (Yerpaskalyası)
–3. Leaves alternate, usually 1-3 pinnatisect, rarely simple; paleae ovate or oblong; annuals or perennials
—4. Achenes dorsally compressed with 2 marginal wings or distinct ribs
—-5. Outer disc or all achenes with distinct marginal ribs but not winged
—–7. Bases of disc corolla tubes pouched and enveloping tops of achenes; achenes ± compressed, rounded, ecoronate at apex; midrib of paleae not reaching apex 46. Achillea (Civanperçemi)
—–7. Bases of disc corolla tubes not pouched at the base; apex of achene bearing a short corona; midrib of paleae excurrent at apex into a mucro or acumen 42. Cota (Babuçça)
—4. Achenes terete, angular or somewhat compressed without distinct marginal ribs or wings
—-8. Disc corolla tubes not as above; achenes terete, angular or slightly compressed, usually with a rim or minute corona at apex, at least on posterior side 42. Anthemis (Papatya)
1. Receptacle naked
-9. Pappus present, consisting (in part at least) of hairs
–10. Ligules small, scarcely exserted from involucre
—11. Pappus entirely of hairs; leaves not all radical; annuals and perennials
—-12. Leaves mostly cauline; capitula numerous in panicles; annuals usually more than 30 cm tall 33. Conyza (Çakalotu)
–10. Ligules conspicuous, distinctly exserted from involucre; biennial or perennial herbs, rarely annuals
—13. Ray flowers neuter, without styles 27. Galatella (Galatel)
—13. Ray flowers fertile, styles present
—-14. Indumentum sometimes glandular but not viscid; perennials; achenes not as above
—–15. Ray flowers 1 seriate, ligules commonly more than 1 mm broad; phyllaries foliaceous or membranous, relatively broad 26. Aster (Yıldızpatı)
—–15. Ray flowers 2-3 seriate, ligules usually less than 1 mm broad; phyllaries herbaceous, relatively narrow 26. Erigeron (Şifaotu)
-9. Pappus absent, or coronate, auriculate or paleaceous
–16. Achenes dimorphic; those of ray flowers triquetrous or 3 winged, those of disc laterally compressed 49. Chrysanthemum [Glebionis] (Kasımçiçeği)
–16. Achenes all alike altough those of rays sometimes coronate but those of disc ± ecoronate
—17. Achenes laterally compressed with 2 distinct marginal ribs; low growing annuals or perennials; leaves usually rosulate 35. Bellis (Koyungözü)
—17. Achenes antero posteriorly compressed or ± terete; ribs more than 2; leaves mostly cauline
—-18. Receptacle becoming hemispherical or conical at maturity; achenes unequally ribbed
—–19. Achenes strongly 3 ribbed posteriorly and bearing 1-2 reddish brown glands near apex on anterior side; annual, biennial or perennial herbs 54. Tripleurospermum (Akpapatya)
—–19. Achenes weakly 3-5 ribbed on posterior surface without reddish brown glands anteriorly; always annual 53. Matricaria (Almanpapatyası)
—-18. Receptacle remaining flat or somewhat convex at maturity; achenes ± equally ribbed
—–20. Leaves ± undivided, serrate or at most pinnatifid; achenes dark coloured with 10 whitish ribs 50. Leucanthemum (Aypapatya)
—–20. Leaves usually 1-3 pinnatisect, rarely undivided; achenes usually indistinctly 5-10 ribbed, ribs and achenes similarly coloured 51. Tanacetum (Pireotu)
Group E
Capitula discoid or disciform; receptacle paleaceous or long hairy; plants not spiny
1. Capitula bisexual
-2. Capitula small, 5-6 mm long, sometimes aggregated into compound heads; corollas minute, 2-3 mm long, inconspicuous
–3. Leaves entire; annuals
—4. Achenes and female corollas ± completely enclosed within paleae and always dispersed within them
—-5. Paleae obviously toughened and hardened at maturity, galeiform (hooded), apex of female corolla emerging ± laterally; pappus absent
—–6. Leaves alternate; capitula in clusters of 2-3, terminal or axillary; paleae very densely lanate, not crested 22. Bombycilaena (Kısaayaklı)
—4. Achenes free within concave paleae or achenes enfolded within plicate paleae and sometimes dispersed with them; female corollas free or enfolded within paleae
—-7. Pappus absent from all achenes; acaulescent or procumbent plants, leaves ± rosetted 21. Evax [Filago] (Keçeotu)
—-7. Pappus present at least on achenes of hermaphrodite and inner female flowers; plants caulescent, usually ascending or erect
—–8. Hairs of pappus capillaceous throughout; capitula in rounded clusters of up to 60, terminal or axillary
——9. Paleae spoon shaped, broadened and usually somewhat saccate at base, attenuate but not strongly acuminate aristate at apex, stellately patent in fruit 20. Logfia [Filago] (Keçeotu)
——9. Paleae concave or navicular (boat shaped), not saccate at base, acute or acuminate aristate at apex, remaining ± erect in fruit 19. Filago (Keçeotu)
–3. Leaves divided; perennial herbs, subshrubs or rarely shrubs, aromatic 55. Artemisia (Yavşan)
-2. Capitula larger, commonly 10 mm or more long, not usually aggregated into compound heads; corollas usually more than 3,5 mm long, conspicuous
–10. Flowers in axils of paleae or stiff bristles (not more than number of flowers); pappus never hairy
—11. Leaves opposite; pappus of 2-4 retrorsely barbed aristate; herbs of marshy ground 4. Bidens (İkidiş)
—11. Leaves alternate; pappus otherwise
—-12. Base of corolla tube downwardly produced into spongy appendages on either side of the achene and persistently enclosing it (densely white tomentose maritime perennials) 48. Otanthus (Çocukotu)
—-12. Base of corolla tube otherwise
—–13. Leaves ± vermiform, pinnatisect, segments usually closely conferted; apex of achene rounded, enclosed by pouched base of corolla tube 47. Santolina (Lavantin)
—–13. Leaves not vermiform, entire or pinnately divided
——14. Caulescent herbs, leaves not rosetted
——-15. Style branches flattened, truncate at apex; leaves 1-2 pinnately divided 42. Anthemis (Papatya)
–10. Flowers surrounded at base by numerous receptacular brsitles or hairs; pappus, if present, mostly hairy
—16. Capitula heterogamous, marginal flowers neuter or rarely female, radiant or not (sometimes inconspicuous but always recognizable by absence of anther tube)
—-17. Annuals or biennials
—–18. Pappus of 5-15 lanceolate scales; leaves entire
——19. Inner phyllaries much longer than median ones, scarious and coloured above; pappus of 5-15 short scales included within involucre 89. Xeranthemum (Kâğıtçiçeği)
—–18. Pappus of numerous linear scales, bristles or hairs, or absent; leaves entire or divided
——20. Phyllaries with a conspicuous appendage; achenes ± glabrous at maturity or sometimes with a few hairs around hilum; hilum lateral without any whitish lip like protrusions at base
——-21. Innermost pappus shorter or not differentiated, or pappus absent 79. Centaurea (Peygamberçiçeği)
——20. Phyllaries without a conspicuous appendage (sometimes with a hyaline margin); achenes velutinous or pubescent at maturity; hilım basal or, if lateral, with a thick whitish lip like protrusion at base
——-22. Pappus mostly of bristles, innermost series consisting of 5-10 short blackish triangular scales; flowers purplish, marginal ones not strongly radiant 81. Crupina (Gelindöndüren)
—-17. Perennial herbs
—–23. Innermost pappus shorter or not differentiated; phyllaries appendaged of, if unappendaged, not blackish tipped 79. Centaurea (Peygamberçiçeği)
—16. Capitula homogamous or rarely heterogamous with functionally male marginal flowers
—-24. Pappus absent; surface of achene somewhat wrinkled 83. Carthamus (Aspir)
—-24. Pappus present; surface of achene ± smooth
—–25. Phyllaries densely covered with yellowish tomentum 79. Centaurea (Peygamberçiçeği)
—–25. Phyllaries not as above
——26. Appendages of phyllaries distinctly broader than their basal parts
——-27. Rhizomatous herbs 45-130 cm tall; phyllaries with concave spoon shaped appendages 73. Rhaponticum (Kekredikeni )
——26. Appendages of phyllaries, if present, not as above
——-28. Pappus plumose
——–29. Involucre usually more than 5 cm broad; phyllaries 1-1,5 cm broad at base, obtuse (cultivated) 57. Cynara (Enginar)
——–29. Involucre less than 4 cm broad; phyllaries less than 0,75 cm broad at base, acute or acuminate
———30. Leaves pinnately divided; herbs 62. Cirsium (Köygöçüren)
——-28. Pappus not plumose
——–31. Pappus consisting of undivided bristles or hairs; plants herbaceous (rarely suffrutescent)
———32. Leaves tomentose at least beneath
———-33. Innermost series of pappus consisting of 2-3 longer and coarser brsitles; pappus persistent; caulescent (rarely acaulescent) herbs 69. Jurinea (Geyikgöbeği)
Group F
Capitula discoid or disciform; receptacle naked; plants not spiny
1. Capitula heterogamous disciform, i.e. filiform or minutely ligulate female flowers present outside the broader hermaphrodite ones
-2. Leaves radical, orbicular, cordate, usually developed after flowering; plants subdioecious; capitula in panicles on stems with scale like leaves 39. Petasites (Vebaotu)
-2. Leaves otherwise, developed before flowering; plants not subdioecious; capitula borne in various arrangements
–3. Pappus of hairs, scales or bristles at least on achenes of hermaphrodite flowers
—4. Achenes of hermaphrodite flowers bearing 2 weak bristles, achenes of female flowers epappose; annual usually with some lyrate pinnatisect leaves 34. Dichrocephala (Kırtıkotu)
—4. Achenes of all flowers bearing a pappus of hairs or scales
—-5. Phyllaries herbaceous or, at most, inner ones with scarious margins; annuals and perennials
—–6. Pappus surrounded by a series of minute scales at base; involucre 1 cm broad or less; leaves green, never grey or white tomentose 12. Pulicaria (Yaraotu)
—–6. Pappus consisting of hairs only; involucre often more than 1 cm broad or, if smaller, then leaves grey or white tomentose
——7. Achenes ± terete, angular or obscurely ribbed; mostly perennials 11. Inula (Andızotu)
——7. Achenes compressed with 2 marginal ribs; annuals or biennials
——-8. Corollas of female flowers minutely ligulate, ± as long as pappus; cauline leaves linear lanceolate, usually less than 1 cm broad 33. Conyza (Çakalotu)
—-5. Phyllaries conspicuously scarious margined or almost entirely scarious
—–9. Pappus hairs numerous (more than 10); capitula few or numerous in dense corymbs, rarely solitary but then phyllaries brightly coloured
——10. Female flowers more numerous than hermaphrodite ones; phyllaries brownish or white 17. Gnaphalium (Bozağan)
——10. Female flowers fewer than hermaphrodite ones; phyllaries yellow, straw coloured or orange, more rarely crimson or white 16. Helichrysum (Ölmezçiçek)
–3. Pappus absent or reduced to a minute corona
—11. Achenes 3-4 mm with a glandular beak; leaves undivided 13. Carpesium (Kuzeyotu)
—11. Achenes 1 mm or less, unbeaked; leaves divided (rarely undivided in cultivation) 55. Artemisia (Yavşan)
1. Capitula homogamous discoid, female flowers completely absent
-12. Capitula more than 1 flowered, not aggregated into compound heads; phyllaries not acuminate into a bristle
–13. Pappus of hairs; plants seldom aromatic
—14. Leaves opposite; tall perennial herbs 41. Eupatorium (Koyunpıtrağı)
—14. Leaves alternate or basal; mostly (except some Inula) medium sized or low growing herbs
—-15. Capitula bisexual, containing hermaphrodite flowers only; basal leaves otherwise
—–16. Involucre consisting of 1 series of equal phyllaries sometimes with shorter free calycular bracts near base 37. Senecio (Kanaryaotu)
—–16. Involucre of 3 or more series, phyllaries ± imbricate
——17. Phyllaries, at least outer ones, herbaceous or cartilaginous, green or straw coloured, inner ones sometimes scarious
——-18. Medium sized or tall herbs; leaves undivided; pappus persistent
——–19. Achenes compressed, 2 ribbed 28. Crinitaria [Galatella] (Galetel)
——–19. Achenes ± terete or angular, 4-5(-20) ribbed 11. Inula (Andızotu)
——17. Phyllaries all scarious, whitish, yellow or orange (plants sometimes aromatic) 16. Helichrysum (Ölmezçiçek)
–13. Pappus absent or coronate, not hairy; plants frequently aromatic
—20. Capitula small, 1-2 mm broad, often pendulous 55. Artemisia (Yavşan)
—20. Capitula larger, ± erect
—-21. Annuals, usually 15 cm tall or less
—–22. Achenes weakly 3 ribbed posteriorly, ecoronate; leaves 2-3 pinnatisect 53. Matricaria (Almanpapatyası)
—-21. Biennials or perennials more than 15 cm tall
—–23. Achenes bearing 1-2 reddish brown glands anteriorly and 3 ribs posteriorly; leaves subglabrous, always finely dissected 54. Tripleurospermum (Akpapatya)
—–23. Achenes 5-10 ribbed, reddish brown glands absent; leaves greyish tomentose; subentire or dissected 51. Tanacetum (Pireotu)

Literatür

O Prirozenosti Rostlin 254. 1820. Bercht. & J.Presl