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Orchidaceae (Salepgiller) anahtarı

Orchidacea: (Salepgiller), Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, 1789.
Orchidaceae: Perennial, autotrophic or occasionally heterotrophic herbs, living symbiotically with endotrophic mycorrhiza. Rhizome creeping or much reduced, with fibrous, fleshy or tuber-like roots. Leaves basal or cauline, rarely absent. Stem erect, slender or robust, with terminal inflorescence. Inflorescence a few or many-flowered spike. Flowers zygomorphic, very variable in size and colour, usually resupinate. Perianth of 2 whorls: an outer whorl of 3 similar segments (sepals) and an inner with two equal segments (petals) and one unequal (labellum). Labellum ± conspicuous, highly modified in shape and colour, frequently spurred, sometimes extremely specifically adapted to certain insects, ensuring cross-pollination. Column (gynostemium or gynandrium) formed by fusion of stigmas and stamens, consisting of a central fleshy organ with a single fertile, bilocular anther and two receptive, confluent or ± separate stigmas. Anther loculi joined by a tissue (connective) which is sometimes prolonged into a beak-like or subulate process; the 2 sterile anthers (in Türkiye) obsolete or rudimentary, converted into staminodes near base on each side of column; the odd sterile stigma modified into a rostellum, separating anther from stigma. Pollinia 2, sometimes bipartite, or 4, waxy or powdery-granulose, often attached by caudicles to 1 or 2 viscid glands (viscidia) which can be free or ± enclosed in a single pouch or separately in two (bursicula), originating from parts of rostellum. Ovary inferior, sessile or minutely stalked, twisted or straight, placentation parietal; mature fruit a capsule, sometimes considerably enlarged after flowering. Seeds innumerable, tiny, without endosperm.
Kocaeli’nde görülen Orchidacea cinsleri:
1. Plants with leaves reduced to sheaths, lacking chlorophyll
 2. Flowers resupinate, labellum facing upwards
  3. Pollinia granulose
   4. Stem and sheaths greyish violet; labellum jointed 5. Limodorum
1. Plant with green leaves
 5. Flowers spirally arranged in a single row on a twisted axis 8. Spiranthes
 5. Flowers not spirally arranged, borne on a straight axis, usually not secund, rarely so
  6. Labellum divided by lateral incisions into basal half (hypochile) and distal half (epichile)
   7. Anther with distinctly elongated connective; labellum with 2 parallel ridges at base 13. Serapias
   7. Anther obtuse; labellum without ridges at base
    8. Leaves cauline; spike not secund; sepals glabrous or pubescent outside
     9. Ovary with short twisted pedicel; column rather thick and short, 3-5 mm 4. Epipactis
     9. Ovary sessile or subsessile; column slender, 8-11 mm 3. Cephalanthera
  6. Lebellum entire or lobed
   10. Labellum without spur
    11. Labellum ± arched, entire or 3 lobed, velvety or papillose above, except for a shining, variously designed marking (speculum) 12. Ophrys
   10. Labellum with spur
    13. Plants with 1 or 2 basal leaves
     14. Leaf 1; labellum 3 lobed; spur short, broadly saccate, with slightly notched apex 20. Steveniella
     14. Leaves 2; labellum entire; strap shaped, spur long, filiform 10. Platanthera
    13. Plants with numerous leaves
     15. Labellum with 2 longitudinal parallel ridges at base 17. Anacamptis
     15. Labellum without ridges at base
      16. Labellum 3-4 lobed or 3 toothed at apex, or entire
       17. Labellum 3-4 lobed, sometimes entire
        18. Spur c. 0,5-2 x ovary
         19. Viscid glands enclosed in a pouch
          20. Emerging spike enclosed by spathe like leaves; all bracts membranous; tubers undivided 22. Orchis
          20. Emerging spike not enclosed by spathe like leaves; lower bracts herbaceous; tubers divided 23. Dactylorhiza
        18. Spur less than 0,5 x ovary
         21. Spike cylindrical; sepals not spathulate elongate; spur conical saccate, 2-5 mm
          22. Flowers very small, in sometimes secund spike; labellum scarcely exceeding the 3-4 mm sepals 18. Neotinea
          22. Flowers large, in cylindrical spike; labellum 1,5-8 x as long as the 10-14 mm sepals
           23. Middle lobe of labellum strap shaped, spirally twisted, to 10 cm, apex split into 2 segments 15. Himantoglossum

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