Lamiaceae Ivan Ivanovič Martinov, 1820.
Lamiaceae (Labiatae): Herbs or shrubs, usually glandular and aromatic; stems 4 angled or not. Leaves exstipulate, simple, sometimes pinnate, always opposite. Inflorescence basically of cymes borne in the axils of bracts or upper leaves and usually contracted to form false whorls (verticillasters); the latter may also be arranged to form ‘spikes’, heads, racemes or cymes. Flowers hermaphrodite, or male sterile (functionally female) in gynodioecious plants. Bracts clearly different from leaves, or similar to them (when they may be termed ‘flora leaves’); bracteoles present or not. Calyx usually 5 lobed with an upper 3 toothed and lower 2 toothed part, rarely lobes or teeth 1 and 1 or 1 and 4, or calyx actinomorphic, veins 5-20. Corolla gamopetalous, zygomorphic and bilabiate with usually and indistinctly 2 lobed upper lip (hood or galea), falcate, straight or ± concave, and a 3 lobed lower lip (labellum); rarely upper lip reduced and lower lip 5 lobed, or with 1 upper and 4 lower lobes, or corolla actinomorphic. Stamens adnate to corolla, 4 and didynamous, or 2 (and staminodes usually present); posterior (upper) pair usually shorter than anterior (lower) pair, anther thecae 2 or 1 celled, parallel or divergent, rarely (in Salvia) separated by elongated connectives. Ovary superior, 2 carpellate and 4 ovulate, 4 lobed. Style gynobasic, rarely not, shortly bifid above. Fruit of four (rarely fewer) dry (very rarely fleshy) nutlets, mucilaginous on wetting (myxospermic) or not.
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