** Poaceae:** (Gramineae), John Hendley Barnhart, 1895.

Buğdaygiller.

**Kocaeli’nde görülen**

*Poaceae*cinsleri:1. Arborescent ‘woody’ perennials (‘bamboos’); leaves on main stem with lamina reduced or absent

2. Internodes each with a longitudinal groove; branches 2(-3) per node

**2. Phyllostachya**

2. lnternodes lacking grooves, at least in lower part of stem; branches 1 per node

**1. Pseudosasa**

1. Herbaceous annuals, biennials or perennials; leaves on main stem with lamina

3. Spikelets strongly dimorphic, male and female spikelets sometimes in different inflorescences

**Group A**

3. Spikelets monomorphic, or differing only in the presence or absence of an awn

4. Inflorescence a spike or raceme

5. Inflorescences a raceme (pedicels often very short)

**Group B**

5. Inflorescences a spike (spikelets completely sessile)

**Group C**

4. Inflorescence a panicle, or of 2-7 branches at top of stem

6. Inflorescence of digitate or paired spike-like branches Group D

6. Inflorescence a panicle

7. Inflorescence a lax plumose (long-haired) panicle Group E

7. Inflorescence a dense or lax non-plumose panicle

8. Inflorescence a lax non-plumose panicle

9. Spikelets laterally compressed or not compressed, always with 2 or more florets

**Group F**

9. Spike1ets dorsally compressed with 1-2 florets, or if laterally compressed then always with 1 floret

**Group G**

8. Inflorescence a dense panicle

10. Inflorescence a head-like panicle (1-2 x as long as broad)

**Group H**

10. Inflorescence a spike-like panicle (more than twice as long as broad)

**Group I**

**Group A**

*Spikelets strongly dlmorphic*

1. Male and female spikelets in different inflorescences, male at top of stem, female further down

**142. Zea**

1. Male and female spikelets present in same inflorescence

2. Female spikelets seated in a bony, urceolate involucre

**141. Coix**

2. Female spikelets not seated in a bony involucre

3. Inflorescence a spike or a spike-like panicle

4. Fertile spikelets not warty, surrounded by many sterile lemmas

**86. Cynosurus**

3. Inflorescence a rather dense oblong, ovoid or subglobose panicle

5. Lemmas of sterile spikelets aristate to acuminate at apex; spikelets persistent in fruit

**86. Cynosurus**

**Group B**

*Inflorescence a raceme (pedicels orten very short)*

1. Leaves lanceolate; glumes awned

**122. Oplismenus**

1. Combination of characters not as above

2. Ligule membranous

4. Lemmas with a short or rather long terminal awn

5. Glumes very unequal; lower glume (0-)1-veined

**67. Vulpia**

5. Glumes subequal; lower glume 1-7-veined

6. Lower glume 1-3-veined

7. Caespitose perennial; stem 50 cm or more; lemma 5-8 mm

**65. x Festulolium**

6. Lower glume 3-7-veined

8. Perennial; spikelets terete to subterete

**5. Brachypodium**

4. Lemmas without a terminal awn, but sometimes with a dorsal awn

10. All lemmas without an awn

11. Glumes unequal; leaf blades flat when dry

12. Spikelets 6-10 mm, with 3-5 florets; glumes obtuse to emarginate at apex, with broad hyaline margins

**84. Sclerochloa**

12. Spikelets 9-30 mm, with 4-15 florets; glumes acute at apex, not hyaline on margins

**65. x Festulolium**

11. Glumes subequal; leaves convolute when dry

13. Glumes obtuse at apex

14. Spikelets with 6-9 florets ; anthers more than 2.5 mm

**5. Brachypodium**

13. Glumes acute or subulate at apex

15. Spikelets with 5-14 florets, not inserted obliquely or broadways on to axis; anthers 0.4-0 .6 mm

**71. Catapodium**

**Group C**

*Inflorescence a spike (spikelets completely sessile)*

1. Leaf blades linear; only sessile spikelets present

2. Ligule membranous, sometimes reduced to a rim

3. Inflorescence an interrupted spike, with 1 spikelet at each node; internodes always visible

4. Lateral spikelets with only 1 glume

5. Lemmas terminally awned; glumes up to 1/4 as long as lowest lemma of lateral spikelets

6. Annual; spikelets with 2 florets

**74. Psilurus**

5. Lemmas usually awnless, sometimes with a su bterminal awn; glumes longer than lowest lemma in lateral spikelets

7. Lateral spikelets dorsally compressed, embedded in concavities of axis, with 1 floret

**89. Hainardia**

7. Lateral spikelets usually laterally compressed, not embedded in concavities of axis, with 3-11 florets

**66. Lolium**

4. Lateral spikelets with 2 glumes

8. Glumes truncate or concave at apex

9. Glumes usually with 1 or more teeth or awns at apex, usually ± equalling spikelets; veins of lower glume parallel

**13. Aegilops**

8. Glumes obtuse, acute to acuminate, or aristate at apex

10. Both glumes shorter than spikelet

11. Glumes markedly unequal; lemmas dorsally awned; veins of glumes forming prominent longitudinal ridges

**27. Gaudinia**

11. Glumes subequal; lemmas awnless or with a terminal awn; veins of glumes not forming pro minent longitudinal ridges

12. Perennial; spikelets longer than 10 mm; glumes rather pointed and rounded dorsally

**8. Elymus**

10. At least one of the glumes as long as spikelets

13. Lemmas with short terminal awn

14. Perennial

**8. Elymus**

13. Lemmas without a terminal awn

15. Spikelets with 1 floret

16. Auricles absent; rachilla not produced beyond terminal floret; glumes 5-veined

**90. Parapholis**

15. Spikelets with 2 or more florets

17. Perennial; spikelets with 4-7 florets

**8. Elymus**

17. Annual; spikelets with 2 florets

18. Auric1es absent; spikelets glabrous

**89. Pholiurus**

3. Inflorescence a dense spike, with 1 or more spikelets at each node (internodes hidden by spikelets)

19. Spikelets 2 or more at each node of axis

20. Spikelets with 3-5 hermaphrodite florets; awn (when present) 1/6- 1/2 x lemma

**17. Leymus**

20. Spikelets with 1-2 hermaphrodite florets; awn at least as long as lemma

21. Spikelets 2 at each node of main axis

22. Axis of inflorescence glabrous; awns 6-12 cm, recurved

**21. Taeniatherum**

21. Spikelets usually 3 at each node of main axis

23. At least lateral 2 spikelets at each node of main axis shortly pedicellate; axis fragile or tough

24. Only 2 lateral spikelets in each unit pedicellate; lateral spikelets male or sterile, central spikelets hermaphrodite

**19. Hordeum**

24. All 3 spikelets in each unit shortly pedicellate; lateral spikelets hermaphrodite, male or sterile; central spikelet male or hermaphrodite

25. Lateral spikelets male or sterile; annual, 10-45 cm

**19. Hordeum**

19. Spikelets solitary at each node of main axis

26. Glumes truncate, with or without 1 or more teeth or awns at apex

27. Glumes with 2 prominent keels, bearing tufts of hairs only on dorsal side of middle vein; rachis barbate on margins

**15. Dasypyrum**

27. Glumes with 1 keelor rounded dorsally, without tufts of hairs on dorsal side of middle vein; rachis not barbate

28. Glumes usually rounded dorsally, with 1 or more teeth or awns at apex; rachis fragile

**13. Aegilops**

28. Glumes keeled, usually with 1-2 teeth at apex; rachis tough

**14. Triticum**

26. Glumes gradually or abruptly terminating in an awn, or acuminate at apex

29. Glumes covering sides of lower florets

**17. Leymus**

29. Glumes covering back of lower florets

30. Glumes dorsally rounded

**8. Elymus**

30. Glumes dorsally keeled

31. Spikelets with 2(-3) florets; glumes subulate, with 0-1 veins

**16. Secale**

**Group D**

*Inflorescence of digitate or paired spike-like branches*

1. Sorne spikelets with an exserted awn

2. Leaf blades linear

3. Inflorescence digitate or subdigitate, with 3-7 or more spike-like branches

4. Pedicels with translucent median groove; lower glume of sessile spikelets oblong, tapering at both ends

**133. Bothriochloa**

3. Inflorescence a terminal pair of spike-like racemes, or a complex false panicle of (1-)2 or more pairs of racemes

5. Sessile spikelets 3-6 mm

6. Sessile spikelets (3-)4-5(-6) mm; bases of awns hirsute; stem nodes glabrous; usually several pairs of racemes present, forming complex false panicle

**136. Hyparrhenia**

1. All spikelets without an exserted awn

7. Spikelets dorsally compressed

8. Spikelets 3-20 mm, sessile and pedicellate ones both present

9. Spikelets 10-20 mm; leaves (16-)20-75 cm

**139. Phacelurus**

8. Spikelets 2.2-3 mm, all shortly pedicellate

10. Inflorescence of paired spike-like racemes, with 1 spikelets at each node

**124. Paspalum**

10. Inflorescence of at least 3 digitate or subdigitate spike-like racemes, with usually 2 spikelets at each node

**123. Digitaria**

7. Spikelets laterally compressed

11. Axis of inflorescence branches not exserted; upper glume aeute to acuminate, without an awn

12. Leaf blades linear

13. Spikelets with 1 floret; glumes subequal; perennial

**115. Cynodon**

13. Spikelets with 2 or more florets ; glumes unequal; annual

**112. Eleusine**

**Group E**

*Inflorescence a lax plumose panicle*

1. Spikelets with 1 floret

2. Plumose hairs attached to long terminal awn of lemma, or one of its branches

3. Terminal awn of lemma simple; ligule mem branous

**99. Stipa**

2. Plumose hairs arising from callus of lemmas

4. Spikelets 1.5-3.8 mm; glumes acute; lemma almost as long as glumes

**45. Agrostis**

4. Spikelets 4-6 mm; glumes acuminate; lemmas shorter than glumes

**42. Calamagrostis**

1. Spikelets with 2-10 florets

5. Hairs arising from involucral bristles which subtend spikelets

**126. Pennisetum**

5. Hairs not arising from an involucre of bristles; spikelets not subtended by involucre of bristles

6. Hairs on lemma and panicle branches; caryopsis with hairy terminal appendage

**23. Bromus**

6. Combination of characters not as above

7. Hairs surrounding spikelets, sorne hairs attached to glumes

8. Lemma without an awn; spikelets ± hidden by hairs

9. Stems to 6 m, solid, filled with sugar; leaf blades to 150 x 6 cm

**129. Saccharum**

9. Stems 20-110 cm, hollow, lacking sugar; leaf blades 14-45(-55) x 0.13-0.5 cm

**128. Imperata**

8. Lemmas with an awn; spikelets ± visible

10. Leaf blades not as above; palea shorter than lemma or absent

11. Rachis of racemes fragile, spikelets disarticulating, ± approximate; awn of fertile lemma 2-6 mm

**129. Saccharum**

7. Hairs arising from between 2 glumes; glumes glabrous

12. Ligule clearly meinbranous, without hairs or cilia

13. Hairs arising from rachilla segments; ail florets alike, with dorsal awn; lemmas bifid at apex

**28. Trisetum**

13. Hairs arising from dorsal side of lemmas; florets dimorphic, upper 2 sterile florets forming clavate mass; awn absent; lemmas acute to obtuse at apex

**95. Melica**

12. Ligule a fringe of hairs, or appearing so

14. Spikelets unisexual and plant dioecious; glumes 3-veined

**105. Cortaderia**

14. Spikelets bisexual, plant not dioecious; glumes 3-veined

15. Rachilla with long hairs; lemma glabrous on dorsal surface; ligule a fringe of hairs

**104. Phragmites**

15. Rachilla glabrous; lemma with long hairs on dorsal surface; ligule truncate with cilia on upper margin

**103. Arundo**

**Group F**

*Spikelets laterally compressed or not compressed, always with 2 or more florets*

1. Ligule a fringe of hairs

2. At least one glume as long as lowest lemma; lemmas 1.4-2 mm

3. Annual; leaves not distichous

**111. Eragrostis**

3. Perennial; leaves distichous

**116. Sporobolus**

2. Both glumes shorter than lowest lemma

4. Lemma less than 3.5 mm

**111. Eragrostis**

1. Ligule membranous

6. Spikelets in triads, one sessile and two pedicellate; upper glume, upper lemma and (sometimes) lower lemma all awned; callus with golden-brown tuft of hairs

**132. Chrysopogon**

6. Combination of characters not as above

7. Spikelets all awned, or only lowest lemma awnless

8. Lemmas terminally awned

9. Lower 2 florets hermaphrodite; glumes not scale-like

10. Perennial; panicle branches not dichotomously arranged

11. Rachilla and basal part of lemma glabrous

12. Anthers indehiscent, containing sterile pollen

**65. x Festulolium**

12. Anthers dehiscent. releasing good pollen

**63. Festuca**

8. Lemmas subterminally. dorsally or subdorsally awned (lowest lemma sometimes terminally awned or awnless)

13. Lowest lemma awnless or terminally awned

14. Spikelets 3-5(-6) mm; lower glume 1-veined, upper glume 3-veined and with a seta at apex

**41. Holcus**

13. Lowest lemma with a dorsal or subterminal awn

16. Perennial

17. Awn of lemmas inserted further below tip, longer than 2 mm

19. Florets 2-8, at least lower 2 hermaphrodite

20. Spikelets 3-11 mm. with 2-4 florets; caryopsis glabrous at apex

21. Spikelets with 2-4 florets; lemmas bifid at apex

**30. Trisetum**

16. Annual

22. Awn jointed. clavate distally

**40. Corynephorus**

22. Awn not as above

23. Both glumes shorter than spikelet

24. Both glumes not aristate at apex

25. Lemma not terminating in 2 apical setae

26. Branches not verticillately arranged; spikelets 12-30 mm

**23. Bromus**

23. At least one glume as long as spikelet

27. Spikelets longer than 10 mm; glumes 5-9-veined

**24. Avena**

27. Spikelets 1.3-4.5 mm; glumes l-3-veined

28. Spikelets 1.5-3.5 mm; upper half of awn tapering to a point

29. Lemma clearly subterminally awned

**44. Apera**

29. Lemma dorsally awned

30. Spikelets with 2 florets; rachilla not prolonged beyond upper floret

**39. Aira**

7. Spikelets with alllemmas awnless

31. At least one glume as long as spikelet

32. Spikelets longer than 4 mm; lemma 3-6 mm; perennial

33. Lemma 5.5-5.8 mm

**35. Koeleria**

33. Lemma 3-3.5 mm

34. Lower florets hermaphrodite, uppermost 2-3 florets sterile and forming a c1avate mass; plant not smelling of coumarin

**95. Melica**

31. Both glumes shorter than spikelets

35. Lemmas of fertile florets dorsally keeled

36. Lower 2 florets hermaphrodite; glumes not reduced to scales

37. Panicle branches not dichotomously arranged

38. Lemmas acute to obtuse ; margins of lemma not broad and hyaline

41. Spikelets ± orbicular; glumes 3-9-veined; lemma 7-9-veined. cordate at base

**88. Briza**

41. Spikelets ovate; glumes 1-3-veined; lemma 5-veined, not cordate at base

42. Leaf blades 0.3-4 mm broad

**75. Poa**

42. Leaf blades 4-8 mm broad

43. Spikelets 2.5-6 mm

**75. Poa**

43. Spikelets 7-8 mm

44. Leaf blades (4-)6-15 mm broad

**63. Festuca**

44. Leaf blades at most 4-4.5 mm broad (usually less)

**7S. Poa**

35. Lemma dorsally rounded

45. Lower glume 3-veined, upper 5-7-veined

46. Uppermost 2-3 sterile florets forming c1avate mass; fertile lemmas acute at apex

**95. Melica**

45. Lower glume (0-) 1 (-3)-veined, upper glume (1-)3-veined

48. Perennial

52. Upper glume shorter than lowest lemma

53. Lemmas acute at apex, 5-9 mm

54. Lemma 5-8 mm; anthers indehiscent, containing sterile pollen; caryopsis never formed

**65. x Festulolium**

54. Lemma 7-9 mm; anthers dehiscent, releasing good pollen; caryopsis developing ta maturity

**63. Festuca**

53. Lemmas obtuse ta truncate at apex, 2.5-4(-4.5) mm

55. Spikelets with 3 to many florets

56. Lemma 5-9-veined; spikelets always with 3 or more florets

57. Glumes 1-3-veined; lemma 5-veined

**83. Puccinellia**

**Group G**

*Spikelets dorsally compressed with 1-2 florets, or laterally compressed and a/ways with only 1 floret*

1. Spikelets dorsaily compressed with 1-2 florets

2. Spikelets sunk in concavities of inflorescence branches

3. Sessile spikelets 10-20 mm; racemes 13-32 cm

**139. Phacelurus**

2. Spikelets not sunk in concavities of inflorescence branches

4. Spikelets without an exserted awn, or with a caducous awn which may have dropped off all spikelets

5. Glumes equal ta subequal; spikelets with 1 floret

6. Lemmas hairy

7. Hairs on dorsal surface of lemma not c1avate

**100. Piptatherum**

6. Lemmas glabrous

8. Bath glumes 3-veined; lemma unawned from the first

**51. Milium**

8. Lower glume 3-9-veined, upper 3-7-veined; lemma with a caducous awn which may have dropped off all spikelets

**100. Piptatherum**

5. Glumes unequal; spikelets with 2 florets

9. Ligule absent

**121. Echinochloa**

9. Ligule present

10. Upper glume equalling spikelet; lower glume 0.7-3 mm, surrounding entire spikelet

**119. Panicum**

10. Upper glume shorter than spikelet; lower glume 0.2.0.3 mm, not surrounding spikelet

**123. Digitaria**

4. Spikelets with an exserted awn

11. Ultimate units of panicle not subtended by spatheoles and involucre

12. Glumes unequal; ligule absent

**121. Echinochloa**

12. Glumes equal to subequal; ligule present

13. All spikelets pedicellate, with 1 floret

**100. Piptatherum**

13. Some spikelets sessile; spikelets with 2 florets

14. Pedicels with translucent median groove; sessile spikelets 3-4 mm

**133. Bothriochloa**

14. Pedicels terete, without median groove; sessile spikelets 4.7-7 mm

**131. Sorghum**

1. Spikelets lateraily compressed or not compressed, always with only 1 floret

15. Ligule membranous; awn unbranched or, if branched, branches glabrous

16. Lemma with terminal awn

17. Awn short, 4-5 mm, excentric, caducous

**101. Oryzopsis**

17. Awn long (1 cm or more), not as above

18. Awn of lemma simple

**99. Stipa**

16. Lemma with short dorsal, sub-basal or subterminal awn, or awnless

19. Lemma awned

20. Annual

21. Spikelets 2-3 .1 mm; glumes 1-3-veined

**44. Apera**

21. Spikelets usually longer than 10 mm; glumes 5-9-veined

**24. Avena**

20. Perennial

22. Spikelets 1.5-3.8 mm; glumes acute

**45. Agrostis**

22. Spikelets 4-6 mm; glumes acuminate

**42. Calamagrostis**

19. Lemma without an awn

23. Bath glumes present

24. Glumes equalling spikelet, without broad hyaline margins, acute, acuminate to aristate at apex; lemma very occasionally truncate

27. Lemma not puberulent in lower half; pedicels ± scabridulous

28. Rachilla disarticulating above glumes

**45. Agrostis**

28. Rachilla disarticulating below glumes

**47. Polypogon**

**Group H**

*Inflorescence a dense head-like panicle*

1. Ligule a fringe of hairs

2. Spikelets with 1 floret; lemma keeled, 1-veined

**117. Crypsis**

1. Ligule membranous

3. Spikelets with 1 floret

4. Spikelets not seated in a cup-shaped, toothed involucre

5. Glumes 1-veined

6. Glumes covered with long dense hairs; lemma with 2 setae at apex

**48. Lagurus**

6. Glumes glabrous; lemma lacking setae, with subterminal awn or awnless

**47. Polypogon**

5. Glumes 3-veined

7. Glumes equalling lemma or longer; lemma obtuse, acute or truncate at apex

8. Lemma 3-veined, dorsally keeled, usually awned; rachilla disarticulating below glumes

**56. Alopecurus**

8. Lemma 5-7-veined, dorsally rounded, awnless; rachilla disarticulating above glumes

**59. Phleum**

3. Spikelets with 2 or more florets (sometimes only 1 floret fertile, others reduced to sterile lemmas or to hairs)

9. Lemmas terminally awned

10. Lemmas with a short aristate point or mucro at apex

11. Perennial; glumes 1-3-veined; inflorescence not surrounded by leaf blades

**85. Dactylis**

10. Lemmas with 2-5 aristate points or aristulate teeth at apex

12. Annual; lemma with 5-7 aristate points at apex

**93. Echinaria**

12. Perennial; lemma with 2-5 aristulate teeth at apex

**92. Sesleria**

9. Lemmas subterminally to dorsally awned, or awnless

13. Lemmas without an awn

14. Spikelets with 3 florets; lower 2(-3) florets sterile, their lemmas sometimes obsolete or reduced to hairs; glumes equalling spikelet

**53. Phalaris**

14. Spikelets with 3-many florets; lower 2 florets hermaphrodite; glumes shorter th an spikelet

15. Spikelets 10-20 x 8-10 mm; lemmas broadly cordate

**88. Briza**

15. Spikelets and lemmas not as above

16. Lemmas truncate at apex; glumes unequal; pedicels c1early visible to naked eye

**84. Sclerochloa**

13. Lemmas (except uppermost) with an awn

17. Spikelets 15-70 mm; each lemma with 9 subterminal awns

**23. Bromus**

17. Spikelets 4-12 mm; each lemma with only one awn

18. Spikelets 4-5.3 mm; awn subterminal

**34. Rostraria**

18. Spikelets 5-12 mm; awn dorsal

19. Lower 2 florets sterile, densely hairy, with 2 obtuse lobes at apex; uppermost floret hermaphrodite and awnless

**54. Anthoxanthum**

**Group I**

*Inflorescence a dense spike-like panicle, more than twice as long as broad*

1. Terminal awn usually absent, when present always simple

3. Ligule a fringe of hairs, or absent

4. Leaf blades linear

5. Upper glumes covered with hooked spines

**118. Tragus**

5. Upper glumes not covered with hooked spines

6. Spikelets with 1 floret

7. Perennial; rachilla disarticulating above glumes

**116. Sporobolus**

6. Spikelets with 2-18 florets

8. Both glumes shorter than spikelet

9. Spikelets subtended by 1-many persistent scabrid bristles

**125. Setaria**

9. Spikelets not subtended by bristles

8. At least one glume as long as spikelet

10. Glumes very unequal; spikelets 2-5 mm 12. Spikelets subtended by I-many persistent seabrid bristles

**125. Setaria**

12. Spikelets not subtended by scabrid bristles

13. Ligule present; lower glume reduced to a sm ail veinless seale

**120. Brachiaria**

13. Ligule absent; lower glume e. 1/3-1/2 x spikelet

**121. Echinochloa**

3. Ligule membranous or occasionally absent

14. Spikelets usually with 1 floret

15. Lemma terminally awned, or with short apical mucro

16. Perennial; awn 0.6-40 cm; spikelet longer than 3 mm

**99. Stipa**

16. Annual; awn less than 3 mm; spikelets 2.5-3 mm

17. Glumes equal, equalling lemma, with terminal seta; lemma with terminal awn

**44. Apera**

15. Lemma subterminally or dorsally awned, or awnless

18. Glumes ± hairy, with a seta arising from sinus

19. Glume covered with long, soft dense hairs ail over

**48. Lagurus**

19. Glumes with a few stout hairs in lower part

20. Spikelets not persistent; seta of glumes 4-7 mm

**47. Polypogon**

18. Glumes glabrous, without a seta

21. Spikelets 10-14 mm; leaf blades to 60 cm, convolute

**43. Ammophila**

21. Spikelets to 7 mm; leaf blades short and flat

22. Glumes rather swollen and rounded in lower part, compressed and keeled in upper half

**49. Gastridium**

22. Glumes not swollen in lower part, compressed and keeled throughout their length

23. Glumes 1-3-veined; 2 outer veins of lemma not exserted as setae

24. Glumes 3-veined; both glumes equal in breadth

25. Lemma 3-veined, keeled dorsally, usually awned; rachilla disarticulating below glumes

**56. Alopecurus**

25. Lemma 5-7-veined, dorsally rounded, awnless; rachilla disarticulating above glumes

**59. Phleum**

24. Glumes 1- to 3-veined; lower glume slightly narrower thall upper

26. Annual; lemmas rather more firm than glumes; awns 2-4 x spikelet

**44. Apera**

26. Perennial; lemmas more de!icate than glumes; awns extremely short or absent

27. Spikelets 1.5-3.8 mm; glumes acute

**45. Agrostis**

27. Spikelets 4-6(-7) mm; glumes acuminate to aristate

**42. Calamagrostis**

14. Spikelets always with 2 to several florets

28. Spikelets subtended by an involucre of peresistent scabrid bristles; ligule a fringe of hairs arising from a membranous rim

**125. Setaria**

28. Spikelets not subtended by an involucre of bristles; ligule, if present, not as above

29. Lemmas without an awn

30. Spikelets ventrally compressed, with 2 florets; ligule absent

**121. Echinochloa**

30. Spikelets laterally eompressed, usually with more than 2 florets; membranous ligule present

31. At least one glume as long as spikelet

32. Uppermost 2-3 sterile lemmas forming a c1avate mass; glumes without a wing

**95. Melica**

32. Uppermost floret hermaphrodite, lower 2 florets sterile; glumes usually winged

**53. Phalaris**

31. Glumes shorter than spikelet

33. Annual

34. Glumes and lemmas suborbicular to reniform; lemmas 7-9-veined

**88. Briza**

34. Glumes and lemmas not as above; lemmas 5-7-veined

35. Glumes distinctly unequal, margins hyaline; lowest lemma 4.8-6 mm, obtuse at apex

**84. Sclerochloa**

35. Glumes subequal, margins not hyaline; lowest lemma 2-2.5 mm, acute at apex

**71. Catapodium**

33. Perennial

36. Glumes 3-veined; lemmas c. 2.5-3.5 mm; caryopsis with basal, punetiform hilum

**75. Poa**

36. Glumes 1- to 3-veined; lemma (2-)3.5-6.8 mm; caryopsis with supra basal, oblong to linear hilum

37. Glumes not hyaline, aeute to aeuminate; lemmas aeute to acuminate, sometimes with an aristate point; pedicels puberulent

39. Rachilla disarticulating only above glumes

**35. Koeleria**

39. Rachilla disarticulating above glumes and between florets

**63. Festuea**

29. Lemmas with an awn or mucro (lowest lemma sometimes unawned)

40. Lemmas terminally awned

41. Both glumes terminating in an aristate point ; lemmas with 2-5 aristate teeth at apex

**92. Sesleria**

41. Glumes not terminating in an aristate point; lemmas with only 1 awn, or an apical mucro

42. Annual; glumes distinctly unequal; awn at least 3-4 mm

**67. Vulpia**

42. Perennial; glumes equal ta subequal; awn 0.7-1.5 mm

43. Spikelets with 2 florets, arranged in 2 rows along one side of branches; glumes obtuse

**58. Beckmannia**

43. Combination of characters not as above

44. Spikelets aggregated in dense fascicles

**85. Dactylis**

44. Spikelets not aggregated in fascicles

**63. Festuca**

40. Lemmas subterminally or dorsally awned

45. Spikelets with 3 florets; lower 2 florets sterile, awned and covered with long stiff hairs; only terminal fertile floret awnless

**54. Anthoxanthum**

45. Spikelets with 2-11 florets; florets all alike, fertile and awned

46. Both glumes terminating in an apical seta

**41. Holcus**

46. Neither glume terminating in an apical seta

47. Lemma shortly bifid at apex

48. Glumes equal; lemma with dorsal awn

**39. Aira**

48. Glumes unequal; lemma with subterminal awn, or unawned

49. Lower glume 1/2-3/4 x upper glume; lemmas keeled; palea usually equalling or exceeding lemma, rarely shorter

**34. Rostraria**

The Plant List‘de Poaceae | Tropicos‘da Poaceae | IPNI‘de Poaceae | Wikipedia‘da Poaceae