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Poaceae (Gramineae – Buğdaygiller) anahtarı

Poaceae: (Gramineae), John Hendley Barnhart, 1895.
Kocaeli’nde görülen Poaceae cinsleri:
1. Arborescent ‘woody’ perennials (‘bamboos’); leaves on main stem with lamina reduced or absent
 2. Internodes each with a longitudinal groove; branches 2(-3) per node 2. Phyllostachya
 2. lnternodes lacking grooves, at least in lower part of stem; branches 1 per node 1. Pseudosasa
1. Herbaceous annuals, biennials or perennials; leaves on main stem with lamina
 3. Spikelets strongly dimorphic, male and female spikelets sometimes in different inflorescences Group A
 3. Spikelets monomorphic, or differing only in the presence or absence of an awn
  4. Inflorescence a spike or raceme
   5. Inflorescences a raceme (pedicels often very short) Group B
   5. Inflorescences a spike (spikelets completely sessile) Group C
  4. Inflorescence a panicle, or of 2-7 branches at top of stem
   6. Inflorescence of digitate or paired spike-like branches Group D
   6. Inflorescence a panicle
    7. Inflorescence a lax plumose (long-haired) panicle Group E
    7. Inflorescence a dense or lax non-plumose panicle
     8. Inflorescence a lax non-plumose panicle
      9. Spikelets laterally compressed or not compressed, always with 2 or more florets Group F
      9. Spike1ets dorsally compressed with 1-2 florets, or if laterally compressed then always with 1 floret Group G
     8. Inflorescence a dense panicle
      10. Inflorescence a head-like panicle (1-2 x as long as broad) Group H
      10. Inflorescence a spike-like panicle (more than twice as long as broad) Group I
Group A
Spikelets strongly dlmorphic
1. Male and female spikelets in different inflorescences, male at top of stem, female further down 142. Zea
1. Male and female spikelets present in same inflorescence
 2. Female spikelets seated in a bony, urceolate involucre 141. Coix
 2. Female spikelets not seated in a bony involucre
  3. Inflorescence a spike or a spike-like panicle
   4. Fertile spikelets not warty, surrounded by many sterile lemmas 86. Cynosurus
  3. Inflorescence a rather dense oblong, ovoid or subglobose panicle
   5. Lemmas of sterile spikelets aristate to acuminate at apex; spikelets persistent in fruit 86. Cynosurus
Group B
Inflorescence a raceme (pedicels orten very short)
1. Leaves lanceolate; glumes awned 122. Oplismenus
1. Combination of characters not as above
 2. Ligule membranous
  4. Lemmas with a short or rather long terminal awn
   5. Glumes very unequal; lower glume (0-)1-veined 67. Vulpia
   5. Glumes subequal; lower glume 1-7-veined
    6. Lower glume 1-3-veined
     7. Caespitose perennial; stem 50 cm or more; lemma 5-8 mm 65. x Festulolium
    6. Lower glume 3-7-veined
     8. Perennial; spikelets terete to subterete 5. Brachypodium
  4. Lemmas without a terminal awn, but sometimes with a dorsal awn
   10. All lemmas without an awn
    11. Glumes unequal; leaf blades flat when dry
     12. Spikelets 6-10 mm, with 3-5 florets; glumes obtuse to emarginate at apex, with broad hyaline margins 84. Sclerochloa
     12. Spikelets 9-30 mm, with 4-15 florets; glumes acute at apex, not hyaline on margins 65. x Festulolium
    11. Glumes subequal; leaves convolute when dry
     13. Glumes obtuse at apex
      14. Spikelets with 6-9 florets ; anthers more than 2.5 mm 5. Brachypodium
       13. Glumes acute or subulate at apex
        15. Spikelets with 5-14 florets, not inserted obliquely or broadways on to axis; anthers 0.4-0 .6 mm 71. Catapodium
Group C
Inflorescence a spike (spikelets completely sessile)
1. Leaf blades linear; only sessile spikelets present
 2. Ligule membranous, sometimes reduced to a rim
  3. Inflorescence an interrupted spike, with 1 spikelet at each node; internodes always visible
   4. Lateral spikelets with only 1 glume
    5. Lemmas terminally awned; glumes up to 1/4 as long as lowest lemma of lateral spikelets
     6. Annual; spikelets with 2 florets 74. Psilurus
    5. Lemmas usually awnless, sometimes with a su bterminal awn; glumes longer than lowest lemma in lateral spikelets
     7. Lateral spikelets dorsally compressed, embedded in concavities of axis, with 1 floret 89. Hainardia
     7. Lateral spikelets usually laterally compressed, not embedded in concavities of axis, with 3-11 florets 66. Lolium
   4. Lateral spikelets with 2 glumes
    8. Glumes truncate or concave at apex
     9. Glumes usually with 1 or more teeth or awns at apex, usually ± equalling spikelets; veins of lower glume parallel 13. Aegilops
    8. Glumes obtuse, acute to acuminate, or aristate at apex
     10. Both glumes shorter than spikelet
      11. Glumes markedly unequal; lemmas dorsally awned; veins of glumes forming prominent longitudinal ridges 27. Gaudinia
      11. Glumes subequal; lemmas awnless or with a terminal awn; veins of glumes not forming pro minent longitudinal ridges
       12. Perennial; spikelets longer than 10 mm; glumes rather pointed and rounded dorsally 8. Elymus
     10. At least one of the glumes as long as spikelets
      13. Lemmas with short terminal awn
       14. Perennial 8. Elymus
       13. Lemmas without a terminal awn
        15. Spikelets with 1 floret
         16. Auricles absent; rachilla not produced beyond terminal floret; glumes 5-veined 90. Parapholis
        15. Spikelets with 2 or more florets
         17. Perennial; spikelets with 4-7 florets 8. Elymus
         17. Annual; spikelets with 2 florets
          18. Auric1es absent; spikelets glabrous 89. Pholiurus
  3. Inflorescence a dense spike, with 1 or more spikelets at each node (internodes hidden by spikelets)
   19. Spikelets 2 or more at each node of axis
    20. Spikelets with 3-5 hermaphrodite florets; awn (when present) 1/6- 1/2 x lemma 17. Leymus
    20. Spikelets with 1-2 hermaphrodite florets; awn at least as long as lemma
     21. Spikelets 2 at each node of main axis
      22. Axis of inflorescence glabrous; awns 6-12 cm, recurved 21. Taeniatherum
     21. Spikelets usually 3 at each node of main axis
      23. At least lateral 2 spikelets at each node of main axis shortly pedicellate; axis fragile or tough
       24. Only 2 lateral spikelets in each unit pedicellate; lateral spikelets male or sterile, central spikelets hermaphrodite 19. Hordeum
       24. All 3 spikelets in each unit shortly pedicellate; lateral spikelets hermaphrodite, male or sterile; central spikelet male or hermaphrodite
        25. Lateral spikelets male or sterile; annual, 10-45 cm 19. Hordeum
   19. Spikelets solitary at each node of main axis
    26. Glumes truncate, with or without 1 or more teeth or awns at apex
     27. Glumes with 2 prominent keels, bearing tufts of hairs only on dorsal side of middle vein; rachis barbate on margins 15. Dasypyrum
     27. Glumes with 1 keelor rounded dorsally, without tufts of hairs on dorsal side of middle vein; rachis not barbate
      28. Glumes usually rounded dorsally, with 1 or more teeth or awns at apex; rachis fragile 13. Aegilops
      28. Glumes keeled, usually with 1-2 teeth at apex; rachis tough 14. Triticum
    26. Glumes gradually or abruptly terminating in an awn, or acuminate at apex
     29. Glumes covering sides of lower florets 17. Leymus
     29. Glumes covering back of lower florets
      30. Glumes dorsally rounded 8. Elymus
      30. Glumes dorsally keeled
       31. Spikelets with 2(-3) florets; glumes subulate, with 0-1 veins 16. Secale
Group D
Inflorescence of digitate or paired spike-like branches
1. Sorne spikelets with an exserted awn
 2. Leaf blades linear
  3. Inflorescence digitate or subdigitate, with 3-7 or more spike-like branches
   4. Pedicels with translucent median groove; lower glume of sessile spikelets oblong, tapering at both ends 133. Bothriochloa
  3. Inflorescence a terminal pair of spike-like racemes, or a complex false panicle of (1-)2 or more pairs of racemes
   5. Sessile spikelets 3-6 mm
    6. Sessile spikelets (3-)4-5(-6) mm; bases of awns hirsute; stem nodes glabrous; usually several pairs of racemes present, forming complex false panicle 136. Hyparrhenia
1. All spikelets without an exserted awn
 7. Spikelets dorsally compressed
  8. Spikelets 3-20 mm, sessile and pedicellate ones both present
   9. Spikelets 10-20 mm; leaves (16-)20-75 cm 139. Phacelurus
  8. Spikelets 2.2-3 mm, all shortly pedicellate
   10. Inflorescence of paired spike-like racemes, with 1 spikelets at each node 124. Paspalum
   10. Inflorescence of at least 3 digitate or subdigitate spike-like racemes, with usually 2 spikelets at each node 123. Digitaria
 7. Spikelets laterally compressed
  11. Axis of inflorescence branches not exserted; upper glume aeute to acuminate, without an awn
   12. Leaf blades linear
    13. Spikelets with 1 floret; glumes subequal; perennial 115. Cynodon
    13. Spikelets with 2 or more florets ; glumes unequal; annual 112. Eleusine
Group E
Inflorescence a lax plumose panicle
1. Spikelets with 1 floret
 2. Plumose hairs attached to long terminal awn of lemma, or one of its branches
  3. Terminal awn of lemma simple; ligule mem branous 99. Stipa
 2. Plumose hairs arising from callus of lemmas
  4. Spikelets 1.5-3.8 mm; glumes acute; lemma almost as long as glumes 45. Agrostis
  4. Spikelets 4-6 mm; glumes acuminate; lemmas shorter than glumes 42. Calamagrostis
1. Spikelets with 2-10 florets
 5. Hairs arising from involucral bristles which subtend spikelets 126. Pennisetum
 5. Hairs not arising from an involucre of bristles; spikelets not subtended by involucre of bristles
  6. Hairs on lemma and panicle branches; caryopsis with hairy terminal appendage 23. Bromus
  6. Combination of characters not as above
   7. Hairs surrounding spikelets, sorne hairs attached to glumes
    8. Lemma without an awn; spikelets ± hidden by hairs
     9. Stems to 6 m, solid, filled with sugar; leaf blades to 150 x 6 cm 129. Saccharum
     9. Stems 20-110 cm, hollow, lacking sugar; leaf blades 14-45(-55) x 0.13-0.5 cm 128. Imperata
    8. Lemmas with an awn; spikelets ± visible
     10. Leaf blades not as above; palea shorter than lemma or absent
      11. Rachis of racemes fragile, spikelets disarticulating, ± approximate; awn of fertile lemma 2-6 mm 129. Saccharum
   7. Hairs arising from between 2 glumes; glumes glabrous
    12. Ligule clearly meinbranous, without hairs or cilia
     13. Hairs arising from rachilla segments; ail florets alike, with dorsal awn; lemmas bifid at apex 28. Trisetum
     13. Hairs arising from dorsal side of lemmas; florets dimorphic, upper 2 sterile florets forming clavate mass; awn absent; lemmas acute to obtuse at apex 95. Melica
    12. Ligule a fringe of hairs, or appearing so
     14. Spikelets unisexual and plant dioecious; glumes 3-veined 105. Cortaderia
     14. Spikelets bisexual, plant not dioecious; glumes 3-veined
      15. Rachilla with long hairs; lemma glabrous on dorsal surface; ligule a fringe of hairs 104. Phragmites
      15. Rachilla glabrous; lemma with long hairs on dorsal surface; ligule truncate with cilia on upper margin 103. Arundo
Group F
Spikelets laterally compressed or not compressed, always with 2 or more florets
1. Ligule a fringe of hairs
 2. At least one glume as long as lowest lemma; lemmas 1.4-2 mm
  3. Annual; leaves not distichous 111. Eragrostis
  3. Perennial; leaves distichous 116. Sporobolus
 2. Both glumes shorter than lowest lemma
  4. Lemma less than 3.5 mm 111. Eragrostis
1. Ligule membranous
 6. Spikelets in triads, one sessile and two pedicellate; upper glume, upper lemma and (sometimes) lower lemma all awned; callus with golden-brown tuft of hairs 132. Chrysopogon
 6. Combination of characters not as above
  7. Spikelets all awned, or only lowest lemma awnless
   8. Lemmas terminally awned
    9. Lower 2 florets hermaphrodite; glumes not scale-like
     10. Perennial; panicle branches not dichotomously arranged
      11. Rachilla and basal part of lemma glabrous
       12. Anthers indehiscent, containing sterile pollen 65. x Festulolium
       12. Anthers dehiscent. releasing good pollen 63. Festuca
   8. Lemmas subterminally. dorsally or subdorsally awned (lowest lemma sometimes terminally awned or awnless)
    13. Lowest lemma awnless or terminally awned
     14. Spikelets 3-5(-6) mm; lower glume 1-veined, upper glume 3-veined and with a seta at apex 41. Holcus
    13. Lowest lemma with a dorsal or subterminal awn
     16. Perennial
      17. Awn of lemmas inserted further below tip, longer than 2 mm
       19. Florets 2-8, at least lower 2 hermaphrodite
        20. Spikelets 3-11 mm. with 2-4 florets; caryopsis glabrous at apex
         21. Spikelets with 2-4 florets; lemmas bifid at apex 30. Trisetum
     16. Annual
      22. Awn jointed. clavate distally 40. Corynephorus
      22. Awn not as above
       23. Both glumes shorter than spikelet
        24. Both glumes not aristate at apex
         25. Lemma not terminating in 2 apical setae
          26. Branches not verticillately arranged; spikelets 12-30 mm 23. Bromus
       23. At least one glume as long as spikelet
        27. Spikelets longer than 10 mm; glumes 5-9-veined 24. Avena
        27. Spikelets 1.3-4.5 mm; glumes l-3-veined
         28. Spikelets 1.5-3.5 mm; upper half of awn tapering to a point
          29. Lemma clearly subterminally awned 44. Apera
          29. Lemma dorsally awned
           30. Spikelets with 2 florets; rachilla not prolonged beyond upper floret 39. Aira
  7. Spikelets with alllemmas awnless
   31. At least one glume as long as spikelet
    32. Spikelets longer than 4 mm; lemma 3-6 mm; perennial
     33. Lemma 5.5-5.8 mm 35. Koeleria
     33. Lemma 3-3.5 mm
      34. Lower florets hermaphrodite, uppermost 2-3 florets sterile and forming a c1avate mass; plant not smelling of coumarin 95. Melica
   31. Both glumes shorter than spikelets
    35. Lemmas of fertile florets dorsally keeled
     36. Lower 2 florets hermaphrodite; glumes not reduced to scales
      37. Panicle branches not dichotomously arranged
       38. Lemmas acute to obtuse ; margins of lemma not broad and hyaline
        41. Spikelets ± orbicular; glumes 3-9-veined; lemma 7-9-veined. cordate at base 88. Briza
        41. Spikelets ovate; glumes 1-3-veined; lemma 5-veined, not cordate at base
         42. Leaf blades 0.3-4 mm broad 75. Poa
         42. Leaf blades 4-8 mm broad
          43. Spikelets 2.5-6 mm 75. Poa
          43. Spikelets 7-8 mm
           44. Leaf blades (4-)6-15 mm broad 63. Festuca
           44. Leaf blades at most 4-4.5 mm broad (usually less) 7S. Poa
    35. Lemma dorsally rounded
     45. Lower glume 3-veined, upper 5-7-veined
      46. Uppermost 2-3 sterile florets forming c1avate mass; fertile lemmas acute at apex 95. Melica
     45. Lower glume (0-) 1 (-3)-veined, upper glume (1-)3-veined
      48. Perennial
       52. Upper glume shorter than lowest lemma
        53. Lemmas acute at apex, 5-9 mm
         54. Lemma 5-8 mm; anthers indehiscent, containing sterile pollen; caryopsis never formed 65. x Festulolium
         54. Lemma 7-9 mm; anthers dehiscent, releasing good pollen; caryopsis developing ta maturity 63. Festuca
        53. Lemmas obtuse ta truncate at apex, 2.5-4(-4.5) mm
         55. Spikelets with 3 to many florets
          56. Lemma 5-9-veined; spikelets always with 3 or more florets
           57. Glumes 1-3-veined; lemma 5-veined 83. Puccinellia
Group G
Spikelets dorsally compressed with 1-2 florets, or laterally compressed and a/ways with only 1 floret
1. Spikelets dorsaily compressed with 1-2 florets
 2. Spikelets sunk in concavities of inflorescence branches
  3. Sessile spikelets 10-20 mm; racemes 13-32 cm 139. Phacelurus
 2. Spikelets not sunk in concavities of inflorescence branches
  4. Spikelets without an exserted awn, or with a caducous awn which may have dropped off all spikelets
   5. Glumes equal ta subequal; spikelets with 1 floret
    6. Lemmas hairy
     7. Hairs on dorsal surface of lemma not c1avate 100. Piptatherum
    6. Lemmas glabrous
     8. Bath glumes 3-veined; lemma unawned from the first 51. Milium
     8. Lower glume 3-9-veined, upper 3-7-veined; lemma with a caducous awn which may have dropped off all spikelets 100. Piptatherum
   5. Glumes unequal; spikelets with 2 florets
    9. Ligule absent 121. Echinochloa
    9. Ligule present
     10. Upper glume equalling spikelet; lower glume 0.7-3 mm, surrounding entire spikelet 119. Panicum
     10. Upper glume shorter than spikelet; lower glume mm, not surrounding spikelet 123. Digitaria
  4. Spikelets with an exserted awn
   11. Ultimate units of panicle not subtended by spatheoles and involucre
    12. Glumes unequal; ligule absent 121. Echinochloa
    12. Glumes equal to subequal; ligule present
     13. All spikelets pedicellate, with 1 floret 100. Piptatherum
     13. Some spikelets sessile; spikelets with 2 florets
      14. Pedicels with translucent median groove; sessile spikelets 3-4 mm 133. Bothriochloa
      14. Pedicels terete, without median groove; sessile spikelets 4.7-7 mm 131. Sorghum
1. Spikelets lateraily compressed or not compressed, always with only 1 floret
 15. Ligule membranous; awn unbranched or, if branched, branches glabrous
  16. Lemma with terminal awn
   17. Awn short, 4-5 mm, excentric, caducous 101. Oryzopsis
   17. Awn long (1 cm or more), not as above
    18. Awn of lemma simple 99. Stipa
  16. Lemma with short dorsal, sub-basal or subterminal awn, or awnless
   19. Lemma awned
    20. Annual
     21. Spikelets 2-3 .1 mm; glumes 1-3-veined 44. Apera
     21. Spikelets usually longer than 10 mm; glumes 5-9-veined 24. Avena
    20. Perennial
     22. Spikelets 1.5-3.8 mm; glumes acute 45. Agrostis
     22. Spikelets 4-6 mm; glumes acuminate 42. Calamagrostis
   19. Lemma without an awn
    23. Bath glumes present
     24. Glumes equalling spikelet, without broad hyaline margins, acute, acuminate to aristate at apex; lemma very occasionally truncate
      27. Lemma not puberulent in lower half; pedicels ± scabridulous
       28. Rachilla disarticulating above glumes 45. Agrostis
       28. Rachilla disarticulating below glumes 47. Polypogon
Group H
Inflorescence a dense head-like panicle
1. Ligule a fringe of hairs
 2. Spikelets with 1 floret; lemma keeled, 1-veined 117. Crypsis
1. Ligule membranous
 3. Spikelets with 1 floret
  4. Spikelets not seated in a cup-shaped, toothed involucre
   5. Glumes 1-veined
    6. Glumes covered with long dense hairs; lemma with 2 setae at apex 48. Lagurus
    6. Glumes glabrous; lemma lacking setae, with subterminal awn or awnless 47. Polypogon
   5. Glumes 3-veined
    7. Glumes equalling lemma or longer; lemma obtuse, acute or truncate at apex
     8. Lemma 3-veined, dorsally keeled, usually awned; rachilla disarticulating below glumes 56. Alopecurus
     8. Lemma 5-7-veined, dorsally rounded, awnless; rachilla disarticulating above glumes 59. Phleum
 3. Spikelets with 2 or more florets (sometimes only 1 floret fertile, others reduced to sterile lemmas or to hairs)
  9. Lemmas terminally awned
   10. Lemmas with a short aristate point or mucro at apex
    11. Perennial; glumes 1-3-veined; inflorescence not surrounded by leaf blades 85. Dactylis
   10. Lemmas with 2-5 aristate points or aristulate teeth at apex
    12. Annual; lemma with 5-7 aristate points at apex 93. Echinaria
    12. Perennial; lemma with 2-5 aristulate teeth at apex 92. Sesleria
  9. Lemmas subterminally to dorsally awned, or awnless
   13. Lemmas without an awn
    14. Spikelets with 3 florets; lower 2(-3) florets sterile, their lemmas sometimes obsolete or reduced to hairs; glumes equalling spikelet 53. Phalaris
    14. Spikelets with 3-many florets; lower 2 florets hermaphrodite; glumes shorter th an spikelet
     15. Spikelets 10-20 x 8-10 mm; lemmas broadly cordate 88. Briza
     15. Spikelets and lemmas not as above
      16. Lemmas truncate at apex; glumes unequal; pedicels c1early visible to naked eye 84. Sclerochloa
   13. Lemmas (except uppermost) with an awn
    17. Spikelets 15-70 mm; each lemma with 9 subterminal awns 23. Bromus
    17. Spikelets 4-12 mm; each lemma with only one awn
     18. Spikelets 4-5.3 mm; awn subterminal 34. Rostraria
     18. Spikelets 5-12 mm; awn dorsal
      19. Lower 2 florets sterile, densely hairy, with 2 obtuse lobes at apex; uppermost floret hermaphrodite and awnless 54. Anthoxanthum
Group I
Inflorescence a dense spike-like panicle, more than twice as long as broad
1. Terminal awn usually absent, when present always simple
 3. Ligule a fringe of hairs, or absent
  4. Leaf blades linear
   5. Upper glumes covered with hooked spines 118. Tragus
   5. Upper glumes not covered with hooked spines
    6. Spikelets with 1 floret
     7. Perennial; rachilla disarticulating above glumes 116. Sporobolus
    6. Spikelets with 2-18 florets
     8. Both glumes shorter than spikelet
      9. Spikelets subtended by 1-many persistent scabrid bristles 125. Setaria
      9. Spikelets not subtended by bristles
     8. At least one glume as long as spikelet
      10. Glumes very unequal; spikelets 2-5 mm 12. Spikelets subtended by I-many persistent seabrid bristles 125. Setaria
       12. Spikelets not subtended by scabrid bristles
        13. Ligule present; lower glume reduced to a sm ail veinless seale 120. Brachiaria
        13. Ligule absent; lower glume e. 1/3-1/2 x spikelet 121. Echinochloa
 3. Ligule membranous or occasionally absent
  14. Spikelets usually with 1 floret
   15. Lemma terminally awned, or with short apical mucro
    16. Perennial; awn 0.6-40 cm; spikelet longer than 3 mm 99. Stipa
    16. Annual; awn less than 3 mm; spikelets 2.5-3 mm
     17. Glumes equal, equalling lemma, with terminal seta; lemma with terminal awn 44. Apera
   15. Lemma subterminally or dorsally awned, or awnless
    18. Glumes ± hairy, with a seta arising from sinus
     19. Glume covered with long, soft dense hairs ail over 48. Lagurus
     19. Glumes with a few stout hairs in lower part
      20. Spikelets not persistent; seta of glumes 4-7 mm 47. Polypogon
    18. Glumes glabrous, without a seta
     21. Spikelets 10-14 mm; leaf blades to 60 cm, convolute 43. Ammophila
     21. Spikelets to 7 mm; leaf blades short and flat
      22. Glumes rather swollen and rounded in lower part, compressed and keeled in upper half 49. Gastridium
      22. Glumes not swollen in lower part, compressed and keeled throughout their length
       23. Glumes 1-3-veined; 2 outer veins of lemma not exserted as setae
        24. Glumes 3-veined; both glumes equal in breadth
         25. Lemma 3-veined, keeled dorsally, usually awned; rachilla disarticulating below glumes 56. Alopecurus
         25. Lemma 5-7-veined, dorsally rounded, awnless; rachilla disarticulating above glumes 59. Phleum
        24. Glumes 1- to 3-veined; lower glume slightly narrower thall upper
         26. Annual; lemmas rather more firm than glumes; awns 2-4 x spikelet 44. Apera
         26. Perennial; lemmas more de!icate than glumes; awns extremely short or absent
          27. Spikelets 1.5-3.8 mm; glumes acute 45. Agrostis
          27. Spikelets 4-6(-7) mm; glumes acuminate to aristate 42. Calamagrostis
  14. Spikelets always with 2 to several florets
   28. Spikelets subtended by an involucre of peresistent scabrid bristles; ligule a fringe of hairs arising from a membranous rim 125. Setaria
   28. Spikelets not subtended by an involucre of bristles; ligule, if present, not as above
    29. Lemmas without an awn
     30. Spikelets ventrally compressed, with 2 florets; ligule absent 121. Echinochloa
     30. Spikelets laterally eompressed, usually with more than 2 florets; membranous ligule present
      31. At least one glume as long as spikelet
       32. Uppermost 2-3 sterile lemmas forming a c1avate mass; glumes without a wing 95. Melica
       32. Uppermost floret hermaphrodite, lower 2 florets sterile; glumes usually winged 53. Phalaris
      31. Glumes shorter than spikelet
       33. Annual
        34. Glumes and lemmas suborbicular to reniform; lemmas 7-9-veined 88. Briza
        34. Glumes and lemmas not as above; lemmas 5-7-veined
         35. Glumes distinctly unequal, margins hyaline; lowest lemma 4.8-6 mm, obtuse at apex 84. Sclerochloa
         35. Glumes subequal, margins not hyaline; lowest lemma 2-2.5 mm, acute at apex 71. Catapodium
       33. Perennial
        36. Glumes 3-veined; lemmas c. 2.5-3.5 mm; caryopsis with basal, punetiform hilum 75. Poa
        36. Glumes 1- to 3-veined; lemma (2-)3.5-6.8 mm; caryopsis with supra basal, oblong to linear hilum
         37. Glumes not hyaline, aeute to aeuminate; lemmas aeute to acuminate, sometimes with an aristate point; pedicels puberulent
          39. Rachilla disarticulating only above glumes 35. Koeleria
          39. Rachilla disarticulating above glumes and between florets 63. Festuea
    29. Lemmas with an awn or mucro (lowest lemma sometimes unawned)
     40. Lemmas terminally awned
      41. Both glumes terminating in an aristate point ; lemmas with 2-5 aristate teeth at apex 92. Sesleria
      41. Glumes not terminating in an aristate point; lemmas with only 1 awn, or an apical mucro
       42. Annual; glumes distinctly unequal; awn at least 3-4 mm 67. Vulpia
       42. Perennial; glumes equal ta subequal; awn 0.7-1.5 mm
        43. Spikelets with 2 florets, arranged in 2 rows along one side of branches; glumes obtuse 58. Beckmannia
        43. Combination of characters not as above
         44. Spikelets aggregated in dense fascicles 85. Dactylis
         44. Spikelets not aggregated in fascicles 63. Festuca
     40. Lemmas subterminally or dorsally awned
      45. Spikelets with 3 florets; lower 2 florets sterile, awned and covered with long stiff hairs; only terminal fertile floret awnless 54. Anthoxanthum
      45. Spikelets with 2-11 florets; florets all alike, fertile and awned
       46. Both glumes terminating in an apical seta 41. Holcus
       46. Neither glume terminating in an apical seta
        47. Lemma shortly bifid at apex
         48. Glumes equal; lemma with dorsal awn 39. Aira
         48. Glumes unequal; lemma with subterminal awn, or unawned
          49. Lower glume 1/2-3/4 x upper glume; lemmas keeled; palea usually equalling or exceeding lemma, rarely shorter 34. Rostraria

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