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Pinaceae Curt Polycarp Joachim Sprengel, 1830.
Trees. Leaves linear or linear oblong, always with resin canals, borne in fascicles or whorls on the short shoots, or singly on long shoots. Fruit a woody cone.
  4. Leaves without resin canals; fruit surrounded by a fleshy aril Taxus
  4. Leaves with resin canals; fruit a woody cone, exarillate
   5. Mature leaves borne on short shoots, in whorls or fascicles of two
    6. Leaves in fascicles of two, each fascicle surrounded by a sheath at the base Pinus
    6. Leaves in whorls, without sheaths at the base Cedrus
   5. Mature leaves borne spirally on long shoots; short shoots absent
    7. Branchlets with numerous peg like projections persisting after leaf fail; cones pendulous, falling as a whole Picea
    7. Branchlets without such projections; cones erect, the scales falling from the persistent axis Abies