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Cyperaceae, Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, 1789.
Cyperaceae: Perennial, biennial or annual herbs. Stems cylindrical or triangular, solid or hollow, if rhizomatous then bearing scale leaves below. Leaves grass like or reduced to eligulate basal sheaths; phyllotaxis 1/3. Leaf sheaths closed; ligule present or absent. Inflorescence of 1- to many-flowered spikelets arranged in panicles, umbels, racemes, fascicles or a spike, or reduced to a solitary terminal spikelet. Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, each in the axil of a glume. Perianth absent, or composed of 3 to many scales. Stamens (1-)2-3; anthers basifixed. Styles simple; stigmas 2 or 3. Ovary superior, unilocular, with 1 erect ovule. Fruit a 1-seeded nut, biconvex or trigonous, in Carex surrounded by a utricle, in Kobresia enfolded by persistent scale. Seed endospermic.
Kocaeli’de görülen Cyperaceae cinsleri:
1. All leaves reduced to bladeless sheaths or only uppermost sheath with a short lamina
 2. Inflorescence a solitary terminal or apparently lateral spikelet
  3. Inflorescence appearing lateral due to prolongation of stem-like bracts 8. Isolepis
  3. Inflorescence clearly terminal
   4. Style base persistent; spikelets 3- to many-flowered 7. Eleocharis
 2. Inflorescence of 2 or more spikelets
  5. Glumes spirally arranged
   6. Stems 40 cm or more 9. Schoenoplectus
   6. Stems not exeeeding 40 cm
    7. Perianth absent; glumes not more than 2 mm 8. Isolepis
    7. Perianth bristles 1-6; glumes at least 2.5 mm 9. Schoenoplectus
1. All leaves with well-developed lamina
 8. Inflorescence a solitary terminal spikelet
  9. Perianth absent 8. Isolepis
 8. Inflorescence not a solitary terminal spikelet
  10. Perianth present
   11. Perianth bristles not as above, ± inconspicuous
    12. Stem nodes absent
     13. Glumes spirally arranged
      14. Inflorescence a terminal umbel or head9. Schoenoplectus
    12. Stem nodes present
     15. Leaves with a membranous ligule 10. Scirpus
     15. Leaves eligulate
      16. Stems and sheaths triquetrous (sharply 3-angled), stems usually 60-100 cm; spikelets dark chestnut to reddish-brown 11. Bolboschoenus
  10. Perianth absent
   17. Inflorescence of 1 to many spike-like panicles (‘spikes’); flowers unisexual
    18. Nut enclosed in an urceolate utricle 21. Carex
   17. Inflorescence umbellate, fasciculate, head-like or a simple to compound panicle which is not spike-like; flowers hermaphrodite
    19. Glumes regularly distichous
     20. Glumes persistent; rachilla articulated near its base 3. Mariscus [Cyperus]
     20. Glumes deciduous; rachilla not articulated
      21. Nut with an angle (i.e. narrow surface) against rachilla, lenticular 4. pycreus
      21. Nut with a face (i.e. broad surface) against rachilla, trigonous or plano-convex
       22. Inflorescence obviously terminal; stigmas usually 3 1. Cyperus
    19. Glumes spirally arranged (or rarely irregularly distichous: Cyperus)
     23. Style villous in upper 1/3, or on stigmas
      24. Rhizomatous perennial, 15-130 cm; stems terete; inflorescence a cluster of globose heads, all except one of which are stalked 12. Scirpoides
     23. Style and stigmas not villous
      25. Leaves not more than 5 mm broad; spikelets with 3 to many flowers
       26. Tufted annuals, 3-25 cm; glumes 1-3 mm, muticous or with mucro to 0.5 mm
        27. Involucral bracts 5-7; inflorescence a dense, sessile, hemispherical to globose head 1. Cyperus