Boraginaceae (Hodangiller)


Dolaşım

BitkilerHodan takımı › Hodangiller

Genel bilgiler

Tek yıllık, iki yıllık ya da çok yıllık otlardan oluşan bir ailedir. Sayısı hayli az olmakla birlikte çalı ya da ağaç formunda türler de mevcuttur.  Kocaeli ilinde yaygın olarak toplanan ve yemeği yapılan kaldırek ve hodan gibi bitkiler bu aileye bağlıdır. Bazı türler gösterişli çiçekleri nedeniyle süs bitkisi olarak kullanılmaktadır. Cinse adını veren hodanın yanı sıra, kafes otu, ballık, bambul, köpekdili, kumgelini gibi cinsler de bu aile içinde yer almaktadır.

Aile dünyanın büyük bölümünde yayılış gösterir ve adını, Borago (hodan) cinsinden almaktadır. Yapraklar almaşlı dizilişli ve basittir. Çanak ve taç beş lobludur. Kocaeli’de aileye bağlı 17 cins ve 46 tür yayılış göstermektedir.

Aileye bağlı çok sayıda türün taçlarının ağzı pullar, tüyler ya da çıkıntılar tarafından kapatılmıştır. Bu yapılar sadece uzun hortumları olan (proboscis) böceklerin çiçeklerden nektar alabilmelerine izin verir ve böylece böceklerin erkek organ ile dişi organ tepeciğine dokunmalarını zorunlu kılar.

Cins anahtarı

Cynoglottis (Enikdili)
Phacelia (Arıballığı)
1. Herbs, rarely shrublets; fruit of dry nutlets (rarely of corky mericarps)
-2. Perennials; plant with a creeping underground rhizome
–3. Stamens conspicuously exserted from corolla tube; corolla lobes spirally contorted; filaments hairy at base
—4. Basal leaves ovate, cordate, petiole more than 1½ x length of blade; corolla purplish blue 25. Trachystemon (Kaldirik)
—4. Basal leaves ovate elliptic, truncate or attenuate at base, petiole ± equalling blade; corolla white 24. Symphytum (Kafesotu)
–3. Stamens included in corolla tube; corolla lobes not spirally contorted; filaments glabrous
—5. Ovary undivided, style terminal; stigma large, conical, with a fleshy rim; flowers white 2. Tournefortia (Kumgelini)
—5. Ovary 4 lobed; style basal; stigma punctiform to capitate or bilobed; corolla colour various
—-6. Nutlets smooth, glossy, ovoid, ivory white 16. Lithospermum [Buglossoides] (Taşkesen)
—-6. Nutlets ± rugose or ribbed, dull, asymmetrical, brownish
—–7. Corolla infundibular to cylindrical, tube 10-30 mm
——8. Corolla nodding, narrowly infundibular to cylindrical; throat with 5 papillose to cliate scales; nutlets glabrous 24. Symphytum (Kafesotu)
-2. Annuals, biennials, and perennial; plant without a rhizome (or basal parts missing)
–9. Herbs, suffruticose or not
—10. Plant glabrescent or glabrous, usually glaucous
—-11. Corolla rotate or tubular; stamens all equal in size
—–12. Corolla tubular, pale to bright yellow, throat reddish or violet suffused, tube more than 5 mm; nutlets unwinged
——13. Not rhizomatous; corolla lacking faucal scales; nutlets smooth 23. Cerinthe (Alacakız)
—10. Plant with a ± dense indumentum of hairs or setae or both
—-14. One or more stamens conspicuously exserted from corolla tube
—–15. Corolla throat smooth and glabrous, lacking scales
——16. Corolla zygomorphic, infundibular, limb oblique, ± deeply lobed; nutlets variously ornamented 20. Echium (Engerekotu)
——16. Corolla actinomorphic, tubular, ± shortly lobed, lacking distinct limb; nutlets usually smooth (rarely tuberculate)
——-17. Corolla long tubular, nodding; anthers sagittate, united at base or to middle 22. Onosma (Emzikotu)
——-17. Corolla shortly tubular, erect; anthers free 21. Moltkia (Kesenotu)
—–15. Corolla throat with scales
——18. Corolla lobes spirally contorted; filaments with tuft of hairs at base 25. Trachystemon (Kaldirik)
——18. Corolla lobes patent to erect; filaments glabrous
——-19. Annual; corolla rotate; anthers connivent into conical beak; nutlets rugose, with thickened collar like ring at base 21. Borago (Hodan)
—-14. All stamens included in corolla tube (base of anthers not surpassing throat)
—–21. Anthers entire or with short apical appendages
——22. Nutlets not pyriform; calyx 5 lobed (rarely with intercalary teeth)
——-24. Cymes ebracteate
——–25. Ovary undivided; corolla tube without scales; stigma large, ± conical, with a fleshy rim; flowers white
———26. Annuals (rarely perennial); cymes elongate, many flowered; fruit of 4(-1) hard dry nutlets 3. Heliotropium (Bambulotu)
———26. Perennial; cymes short, few flowered; fruit corky, eventually splitting into two 2 seeded mericarps 2. Tournefortia (Kumgelini)
——–25. Ovary 4 lobed; corolla with faucal scales; stigma punctiform to capitate; flower colour various
———27. Nutlets without a wing; corolla rotate
———-29. Nutlets densely spiny glochidiate; corolla tube 4-9 mm 14. Cynoglossum (Köpekdili)
———-29. Nutlets lacking spines and glochidids; corolla tube 1-3 mm
———–30. Nutlets smooth, often with a distinct rim, less than 2,5 mm; collar like basal ring absent 8. Myosotis (Unutmabeni)
——-24. Cymes bracteate, at least in lower part
——–31. Throat of corolla lacking scales, folds and invaginations
———32. Flowers nodding at anthesis; corolla long tubular, lobes usually minute 22. Onosma (Emzikotu)
———32. Flowers ± erect; corolla infundibular or hypocrateriform, with a distinct ± deeply lobed limb
———-33. Nutlets stipitate, beak horizontal to ± strongly deflexed; leaf indumentum often including glandular hairs 30. Alkanna (Havacıva)
———-33. Nutlets not stipitate, beak erect to suberect or obsolote; glandular hairs absent
———–34. Perennials, with rhizome or stout woody stock
————35. Corolla white, blue or purplish; nutlets ovoid, ivory white, smooth and glossy 16. Lithospermum [Buglossoides] (Taşkesen)
———–34. Annuals, lacking rhizome and woody stock
————36. Anthers inserted near base of corolla tube 19. Neatostema (Sarıtaşkesen)
————36. Anthers inserted near middle or in upper half of corolla tube (heterostylous)
————-37. Corolla blue or white, tube with 5 longitudinal bands of hairs; calyx tube not prominently 5 keeled in fruit, often distinctly asymmetrical 18. Buglossoides (Taşkesen)
——–31. Throat of corolla with distinct appendages (scales, invaginations, folds or tufts of hairs)
———38. Throat of corolla with 5 scales, folds or invaginations
———-39. One or more of nutlets with distinct marginal wing, patent or incurved, smooth, dentate or spiny glochidiate
———–40. Annual or biennial; basal leaf blade narrow, attenuate, sessile or shortly petiolate; nutlets unwinged or 1 nutlet winged, borne on elongate conical to pyramidal gynobase
————41. Nutlets ± equal, ovoid, broadly trinagular deltoid or trigonal, attached ventrally to narrowly pyramidal gynophore, with wing formed by confluence or flattened bases of glochidiate spines 4. Lappula (Gürke)
———-39. Nutlets unwinged
———–42. Corolla tubular, broadly cylindrical, lobes erect; flowers nodding 24. Symphytum (Kafesotu)
———–42. Corolla divided into distinct tube and usually deeply lobed limb; flowers ± erect at anthesis
————43. Cymes ebracteate in upper part; nutlets brownish to black
————-44. Nutlets compressed ovoid, brown to black, smooth, glossy 8. Myosotis (Unutmabeni)
————-44. Nutlets covered with glochidiate appendages especially on marginal rim and lateral surfaces 14. Cynoglossum (Köpekdili)
————43. Cymes bracteate; nutlets white to brown
————-45. Corolla rotate, tube 1,3-1,5 mm; nutlets muricate or verruculose tuberculate 4. Lappula (Gürke)
————-45. Corolla infundibular, tube more than 2 mm; nutlets smooth or variously rugose, reticulate and/or scrobiculate
————–46. Corolla throat with 5 glandular invaginations; nutlets ivory white, basal collar absent 16. Lithospermum (Taşkesen)
————–46. Corolla throat with ciliate, laciniate or penicillate scales; nutlets brownish, with a basal ring or fluted rim
—————47. Faucal scales triangular oblong to linear, penicillate, lacking hairs; calyx divided from to base, not to somewhat accrescent 27. Anchusa (Sığırdili)
—————47. Faucal scales short, ± semicircular, laciniate or ciliate, often joined by a ring of hairs; calyx divided from ¼ to ⅔, strongly accrescent in fruit 29. Nonea (Sormukotu)

Literatür

Genera Plantarum 128. 1789. Juss.