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Asteraceae (Papatyagiller – Compositae) anahtarı

Asteraceae: (Compositae), Bedřich Všemír von Berchtold ve Jan Svatopluk Presl, 1820.
Kocaeli’nde görülen Asteraceae cinsleri:
Dichotomous Key Genera
1. Flowers all ligulate, ligules 5 toothed; plants with latex Group A
1. Flowers not all ligulate, at least central ones tubular; plants without latex
 2. Leaves and/or phyllaries spiny, i.e. pricking (spines rarely hooked) Group B
 2. Neither leaves nor phyllaries spiny
  3. Capitula radiate, marginal flowers usually with 3-(rarely 5 or more) toothed ligules obviously longer than disc flowers
   4. Ligules bright yellow to orange Group C
   4. Ligules white, cream, pink, red, purple or blue Group D
  3. Capitula discoid or disciform, marginal flowers tubular sometimes elongated, widened and radiant but usually ± cylindrical, or minutely ligulate and shorter than disc flowers
   5. Receptacle paleaceous or long hairy (hairs at least ⅓ as long as corolla) Group E
   5. Receptacle naked or at most with margins of alveolae (pits) ciliate or toothed Group F
Group A
1. Plants stout and thistle like; stems spinosely winged 95. Scolymus
1. Plants not thistle like; stems never spinosely winged
 2. Achenes epappose or bearing a pappus of scales or aristate but not of hairs
  3. Pappus absent from all achenes
   4. Achenes subulate, outer ones persistent ± curved, stellately patent and wholly enclosed within enfolding phyllaries; inner achenes deciduous 111. Rhagadiolus
   4. Achenes oblong, ± straight, not enfolded by erect phyllaries, all deciduous 126. Lapsana
  3. Pappus, at least of inner achenes, of scales or stiff subpaleaceous aristae
   5. Capitula solitary on leafless scapes; median achenes winged, inner ones terete 101. Hyoseris
   5. Capitula several on branched stems leafy at least near base
    6. Phyllaries scarious at least at margins
     7. Leaves lyrate pinnatisect; phyllaries ovate, ± obtuse, cartilaginous with narrow scarious margins 96. Hymenonema
    6. Phyllaries not at all scarious
     8. Stems with lateral branches overtopping the terminal capitulum ± dichasially, peduncles bearing several narrow bracts below involucre; phyllaries narrowly lanceolate 99. Tolpis
     8. Stems, peduncles and phyllaries not as above
      9. Leaves oblanceolate, usually toothed; achenes included within involucre at maturity
       10. Fruiting capitula ± globose; marginal achenes coronate, enfolded by phyllaries, inner achenes bearing subulate scales ± ½ as long as achene; flowers yellow 110. Hedypnois
       10. Fruiting capitula oblong; marginal achenes not enfolded by phyllaries, all bearing short paleae c. ⅓ as long as achene; flowers blue, rarely white 98. Cichorium
 2. Achenes, at least some of them, bearing a pappus of short hairs, rarely achenes merely ciliate at apex
  11. Pappus of inner achenes consisting of plumose hairs (sometimes broadened and ± paleaceous at base)
   12. Achenes, at least central ones, distinctly beaked
    13. Phyllaries 1 seriate or, if 2-3 seriate, then ± similar and subequal
     14. Pappus of all achenes hairy; receptacle naked or shortly ciliate
      15. Leaves pinnately net veined, rarely entire; phyllaries connate below; achenes ± compressed; beak swollen at base 109. Urospermum
      15. Leaves ± parallel veined, attenuate and entire; phyllaries free to base; achenes fusiform; beak not swollen 103. Tragopogon
     14. Pappus of outer achenes of 3-7 aristate scales; receptacle bearing a few long filiform paleae 104. Geropogon
    13. Phyllaries in 2 or more series, subequal but dissimilar, or ± regularly imbricate
     16. Receptacle paleaceous, paleae linear lanceolate and membranous 105. Hypochaeris
     16. Receptacle naked
      17. Outer phyllaries ovate, cordate, ± as long as inner linear lanceolate ones 108. Helminthotheca
      17. Outer and inner phyllaries similar, imbricate 106. Leontodon
   12. Achenes truncate, attenuate or subrostrate
    18. Indumentum, in part at least, consisting of branched hairs; marginal achenes sometimes coronate or fimbriate
     19. Outer achenes ± straight, striate or ribbed; pappus persistent; indumentum usually containing stalked forked hairs 106. Leontodon
     19. Outer achenes often curved, obscurely 5 ribbed; pappus usually deciduous; indumentum containing anchor shaped glochidiate hairs 107. Picris
    18. Indumentum, where present, entirely of simple, usually lanate hairs; achenes all bearing a plumose pappus 102. Scorzonera
  11. Pappus, at least of inner achenes, consisting of simple smooth scabrous or barbellate hairs or cilia
   20. Outer achenes incurved, longer than involucre, pappus of short cilia c. 0,2 mm 111. Rhagadiolus
   20. Achenes shorter than involucre and concealed within it; pappus hairs longer
    21. Apex of achene beaked, or narrowed and subrostrate
     22. Capitula solitary, rarely few, on leafless scapes; leaves radical rosulate
      23. Achenes muricate or tuberculate above 127. Taraxacum
      23. Achenes smooth or spiculate throughout 129. Crepis
     22. Capitula several or numerous on leafy stems
      24. Achenes ± terete or angular, apex of beak somewhat thickened but not flattened and disc like
       25. Beak articulated and deciduous from achene; capitula subsessile on virgate branches, or stems divaricately branched with persistent and spinescent peduncles 128. Chondrilla
       25. Beak persistent on achene, not articulated; capitula on non spinescent peduncles and never all subsessile 129. Crepis
      24. Achenes compressed, apex of beak expanded into pappus disc
       26. Median and upper cauline leaves with distinct narrow decurrent auricles 0,3-3,5 cm long; capitula 4-8 flowered; flowers yellow 124. Scariola [Lactuca]
       26. Median and upper cauline leaves auriculate or not but auricles not decurrent, or, if very shortly so, then flowers not yellow; capitula 5-50 flowered
        27. Pappus double, with an outer ring of very short (0,1-0,3 mm) smooth hairs (lens!) and inner series of long, copious, capillary, scabrous or barbellate hairs
         28. Phyllaries 7-9, 2 seriate, outer very short and inconspicuous, inner much longer, forming a narrowly cylindrical involucre; flowers always yellow; plant shortly rhizomatous 125. Mycelis [Lactuca]
         28. Phyllaries 9-22, 3-5 seriate, more regularly imbricate, forming a narrowly obconic to campanulate involucre; flowers blue, lilac, mauve or whitish, or if yellow then plant with tuberous rootstock and/or c. 20 phyllaries
          29. Beak of achene slender, 1,7-14,5 mm, paler than body of achene; plants with tuberous rootstock
           30. Involucre 18-36 mm long; achenes 2-3 mm broad, much compressed; beak 8,5-14,5 mm; inner pappus 10,5-12 mm. 122. Steptorhamphus [Lactuca]
        27. Pappus simple, of a single series of long, copious, subequal, capillary, scabrous or shortly barbellate hairs
         31. Beak of achene stout, 2-4 mm, concolorous with body of achene; achenes slightly compressed, gradually attenuate into the beak 120. Mulgedium [Lactuca]
         31. Beak of achene slender, 2,5-13 mm, usually paler than body of achene; achenes ± strongly compressed, beak ± abruptly differentiated 123. Lactuca
    21. Apex of achene beakless, rounded or truncate
     32. Indumentum, in part at least, consisting of stellate hairs; achenes distinctly 10 ribbed; pappus sordid or brownish
      33. Ribs of achene running to its apex, ± crenate at margin; pappus 1 seriate; plants stoloniferous or not
       34. Leaves ± green at least above, rarely densely stellate hairy, mostly basal, rosetted; perennial, usually stoloniferous; pappus hairs scabrous, persistent, fragile 116. Pilosella
      33. Ribs of achene confluent with an obscure ring at its apex, smooth at margin; pappus 2 seriate; non stoloniferous perennials 116. Hieracium
     32. Indumentum, if present, of eglandular or glandular hairs, not stellate; achenes variously ribbed, sometimes 10 (in some Crepis species); pappus usually white, sometimes yellow or brownish
      35. Characters differently combined, but plants never stoloniferous
       36. Achenes oblong or columnar, terete or somewhat flattened
        37. Achenes 4 ribbed, ribs of outer ones tuberculate throughout; pappus deciduous on a ring; phyllaries grading into bracts on peduncles 113. Reichardia
        37. Characters differently combined, achenes never tuberculate or only slightly tuberculate above; phyllaries never grading into bracts on peduncles
         38. Pappus hairs rather stiff, bristle like; leaves parallel veined 102. Scorzonera
         38. Pappus hairs soft; leaves pinnately veined
          39. Achenes (5-)10-20(-30) ribbed; flowers yellow or rarely white (but plants not with ovate hastate leaves); inner phyllaries ± subequal, outer ones much shorter
           40. Achenes smooth or spiculate throughout; inner phyllaries never horned below apex 129. Crepis
           40. Achenes slightly tuberculate or spinulose above; inner phyllaries sometimes horned below apex 127. Taraxacum
       36. Achenes obovate or oblanceolate, ± strongly compressed; base of capitula (but not peduncles) becoming thickened and hardened in fruit 112. Sonchus
Group B
Leaves and/or phyllaries spiny (pricking!); capitula not all ligulate (being discoid, radiant or radiate)
1. Capitula unisexual; male capitula in globose compound heads arranged in terminal spike like inflorescences; female capitula solitary or few, axillary, ovoid, covered with hooked spines 6. Xanthium
1. Capitula bisexual, all alike, without hooked spines (except Arctium)
 2. Marginal flowers ligulate; style usually without a ring of minute hairs below the bifurcation
  3. Leaves or outer phyllaries only spinosely tipped; pappus never hairy
   4. Ligules yellow; leaves unarmed, outer phyllaries spine tipped 9. Pallenis
   4. Ligules white; leaves only spinosely tipped, phyllaries not spiny 42. Anthemis
 2. Marginal and central flowers tubular or infundubilar, often deeply 5 fid; style with a ring of minute hairs below the bifurcation (except Anthemis)
  5. Phyllaries terminating in hooked spines; lower leaves ovate cordate and not spinose 59. Arctium
  5. Phyllaries not terminating in a hooked spine though sometimes recurved or reflexed; leaves not as above
   6. Capitula 1 flowered and clustered into ± globose compound heads (pseudocephalia)
    7. Perennial or biennial plants with prickly leaves; compound heads not involucrate 92. Echinops
   6. Capitula several-many flowered, free or clustered into compound heads
    8. Phyllaries and paleae, if present, remaining free and scarcely indurated; capitula differently shaped; latex absent
     9. Upper surface of leaves covered with spinules 62. Cirsium
     9. Upper surface of leaves not covered with spinules
      10. Pappus of plumose hairs or bristles
       11. Stem continuously winged
        12. Receptacle deeply pitted, margin of pits denticulate 60. Onopordum
        12. Receptacle bearing long hairs, not deeply pitted
         13. Median phyllaries with pinnatisect terminal spine; hilum slit like; annuals 63. Picnomon
         13. Median phyllaries wth simple terminal spine or mucro; hilum oval; biennials or perennials, rarely annuals 62. Cirsium
       11. Stems not continuously winged (leaf bases sometimes shortly decurrent)
        14. Mature achenes densely hairy
         15. Phyllaries with whitish scarious margins; leaf margin not spiny 79. Centaurea
         15. Phyllaries without whitish scarious margins; leaf margin spiny or spinulose
          16. Inner phyllaries patent, longer than flowers, petaloid; outer and median phyllaries not strongly differentiated 87. Carlina
        14. Mature achenes ± glabrous
         17. Median phyllaries with pinnately or palmately divided spiny appendages 79. Centaurea
         17. Median phyllaries differently appendaged or ending in a simple spine
          18. Apex of achene bearing a distinct umbo (i.e. an abruptly raised, rounded, conical or grooved waxy process)
           19. Inner pappus hairs longer and stouter than the rest; leaves not spiny 69. Jurinea
           19. Inner pappus not differentiated thus; leaf margin usually spiny
            20. Base of corolla tube only slightly widened; umbo conical, solid at apex; hilum oval 62. Cirsium
          18. Apex of achene rounded or truncate, without an umbo
           21. Phyllaries more than (0,7-)1 cm broad; stems bearing one or few large (4-5 cm or more) capitula; achenes ribbed or angular 57. Cynara
      10. Pappus scabrous, barbellate, paleaceous at least in lower ½ or coronate
       23. Outer phyllaries foliaceous, inner ones with pinnate spiny appendages; pappus of 10 outer bristles and a series of shorter hairs within; achenes longitudinally ribbed, hilum lateral 82. Cnicus [Centaurea]
       23. Phyllaries, pappus and achenes not as above
        24. Receptacle not deeply pitted; paleaceous, bristly or long hairy
         25. Leaves not spiny
          26. Receptacle paleaceous
           27. Pappus of numerous barbellate hairs; inner phyllaries not or scarcely scarious, greenish or straw coloured; perennials 69. Jurinea
          26. Receptacle long hairy
           28. Pappus of inner achenes of equal sized hairs or central ones shorter; phyllaries various 79. Centaurea
         25. Leaves spiny
          29. Receptacle paleaceous
           30. Pappus paleaceous; phyllaries spiny not membranous
            31. Capitula c. 0,5 cm broad, numerous in dense cymose corymbs; flowers blue; perennial 86. Cardopatium
            31. Capitula more than 0,5 cm broad, solitary at branch ends or in loose corymbs; flowers yellow or purple; annual 83. Carthamus
           30. Pappus coronate; phyllaries membranous margined, not spiny 42. Anthemis
          29. Receptacle and pappus bristly or hairy
           32. Pappus persistent; dwarf, whitish tomentose alpine 79. Centaurea
           32. Pappus deciduous; habit not as above
            33. Hairs of pappus fused to a ring at base and deciduous with it
             34. Stems unwinged; phyllaries spiny margined 61. Silybum
             34. Stems winged; phyllaries not spiny margined
              35. Filaments monadelphous, anthers not tailed; achenes subtetragonal, smooth and glossy at first, with 4 mucilaginous grooves at maturity; annuals 68. Tyrimnus
              35. Filaments free, anthers tailed; achenes somewhat compressed, sometimes mucilaginous but not in grooves; annuals, biennials or perennials 67. Carduus
Group C
Capitula radiate; ligules yellow or orange; plants not spiny
1. Receptacle paleaceous or bearing long hairs at least half as long as disc flowers
 2. Leaves all opposite; outer phyllaries spathulate, patent, densely covered with stalked glands 2. Sigesbeckia
 2. Leaves, at least upper ones, alternate; outer phyllaries not as above
  3. Tall (1-2 m) robust annual or perennial herbs; leaves broadly ovate cordate
   4. Paleae linear, almost bristle like; pappus small, coronate, persistent 7. Telekia
   4. Paleae ovate lanceolate; pappus of 2 lanceolate, deciduous scales (cultivated) 1. Helianthus
  3. Small or medium sized (seldom over 50 cm) annual or perennial herbs; leaves not as above
   5. Pappus of bristles or short scales; phyllaries relatively large and spreading or with bristly appendages; leaves entire or 1 pinnatisect; annuals
    6. Involucre foliaceous, phyllaries lanceolate, enite; ligules 3-9 mm 8. Asteriscus [Pallenis]
   5. Pappus absent, coronate or auriculate; phyllaries with entire or lacerate scarious margins; leaves dissected, seldom entire; annuals or perennials
    7. Capitula several or numerous in corymbs, rarely solitary; paleae ± obtuse and fringed or acute, midrib not excurrent at apex; pappus always absent; leaves sometimes ± vermiform 46. Achillea
    7. Capitula solitary at branch ends or on ± naked peduncles; paleae mucronate or acuminate with excurrent midrib; pappus often coronate or auriculate, sometimes absent; leaves never vermiform 42. Anthemis
1. Receptacle naked
 8. Pappus present, consisting, in part at least, of hairs
  9. Involucre 1-2 seriate; phyllaries, at least inner ones, ± equal in size; style branches always truncate
   10. Capitula solitary, scapes bearing numerous purplish scales; leaves ovate, cordate, all radical but not developed at flowering time 38. Tussilago
   10. Capitula solitary, several or many borne on leafy stems
    11. Phyllaries ± lanceolate, acuminate ± spreading, free from each other; involucre without a calyculus of small bracts at base 36. Doronicum
    11. Phyllaries oblong, acute, ± erect, laterally coherent; involucre usually with a calyculus of small free bracts near base 37. Senecio
  9. Involucre in more than 2 series, imbricate; style branches usually rounded or pointed, sometimes truncate
   12. Pappus with an outer series of minute scales at base of hairs 12. Pulicaria
   12. Pappus consisting entirely of hairs
    13. Ligules inconspicuous, only ± as long as pappus hairs
     14. Achenes of disc flowers fertile; medium or tall annuals 33. Conyza
    13. Ligules conspicuous, longer than pappus hairs
     15. Undersides of leaves showing a fine network of dark veins; style branches lanceolate at apex 25. Solidago
     15. Undersides of leaves without a fine network of dark veins; style branches rounded or truncate at apex
      16. Style branches truncate; basal leaves usually ovate, cordate; phyllaries 2-3 seriate, subequal 36. Doronicum
      16. Style branches rounded; basal leaves oblong or oblanceolate; phyllaries 3-7 seriate, gradually imbricate 11. Inula
 8. Pappus absent or nearly so, not hairy
  17. Achenes all ± alike, generally bearing a rim or unilateral corona at apex; perennials; capitula few to numerous in corymbs, rarely solitary 51. Tanacetum
  17. Achenes dimorphic, those of ray flowers differently shaped from inner ones; pappus completely absent; annuals or rarely perennials, capitula solitary at branch ends
   18. Ray achenes triquetrous or winged, inner ones oblong, longitudinally ribbed or ± winged; phyllaries oblong or ovate, ± obtuse, distinctly scarious 49. Chrysanthemum [Glebionis]
   18. Ray achenes larger or more spreading, inner ones strongly curved or annular, transversely muricate or rugose; phyllaries linear lanceolate, acuminate, narrowly scarious 40. Calendula
Group D
Capitula radiate; ligules white, pink, red, or purple; plants not spiny
1. Receptacle paleaceous (weakly so in Uechtritzia), paleae ovate or oblong or narrower, bristle like and present at least on inner part of receptacle
 2. Herbs with leafy stems; leaves variously shaped but not ovate, cordate; ray flowers white, pink or purple, disc flowers usually yellow, tubular, or, if slightly bilabiate, not more than 6 mm long
  3. Leaves alternate, usually 1-3 pinnatisect, rarely simple; paleae ovate or oblong; annuals or perennials
   4. Achenes dorsally compressed with 2 marginal wings or distinct ribs
    5. Outer disc or all achenes with distinct marginal ribs but not winged
     7. Bases of disc corolla tubes pouched and enveloping tops of achenes; achenes ± compressed, rounded, ecoronate at apex; midrib of paleae not reaching apex 46. Achillea
     7. Bases of disc corolla tubes not pouched at the base; apex of achene bearing a short corona; midrib of paleae excurrent at apex into a mucro or acumen 42. Anthemis
   4. Achenes terete, angular or somewhat compressed without distinct marginal ribs or wings
    8. Disc corolla tubes not as above; achenes terete, angular or slightly compressed, usually with a rim or minute corona at apex, at least on posterior side 42. Anthemis
1. Receptacle naked
 9. Pappus present, consisting (in part at least) of hairs
  10. Ligules small, scarcely exserted from involucre
   11. Pappus entirely of hairs; leaves not all radical; annuals and perennials
    12. Leaves mostly cauline; capitula numerous in panicles; annuals usually more than 30 cm tall 33. Conyza
  10. Ligules conspicuous, distinctly exserted from involucre; biennial or perennial herbs, rarely annuals
   13. Ray flowers neuter, without styles 27. Galatella
   13. Ray flowers fertile, styles present
    14. Indumentum sometimes glandular but not viscid; perennials; achenes not as above
     15. Ray flowers 1 seriate, ligules commonly more than 1 mm broad; phyllaries foliaceous or membranous, relatively broad 26. Aster
     15. Ray flowers 2-3 seriate, ligules usually less than 1 mm broad; phyllaries herbaceous, relatively narrow 26. Erigeron
 9. Pappus absent, or coronate, auriculate or paleaceous
  16. Achenes dimorphic; those of ray flowers triquetrous or 3 winged, those of disc laterally compressed 49. Chrysanthemum [Glebionis]
  16. Achenes all alike altough those of rays sometimes coronate but those of disc ± ecoronate
   17. Achenes laterally compressed with 2 distinct marginal ribs; low growing annuals or perennials; leaves usually rosulate 35. Bellis
   17. Achenes antero posteriorly compressed or ± terete; ribs more than 2; leaves mostly cauline
    18. Receptacle becoming hemispherical or conical at maturity; achenes unequally ribbed
     19. Achenes strongly 3 ribbed posteriorly and bearing 1-2 reddish brown glands near apex on anterior side; annual, biennial or perennial herbs 54. Tripleurospermum
     19. Achenes weakly 3-5 ribbed on posterior surface without reddish brown glands anteriorly; always annual 53. Matricaria
    18. Receptacle remaining flat or somewhat convex at maturity; achenes ± equally ribbed
     20. Leaves ± undivided, serrate or at most pinnatifid; achenes dark coloured with 10 whitish ribs 50. Leucanthemum
     20. Leaves usually 1-3 pinnatisect, rarely undivided; achenes usually indistinctly 5-10 ribbed, ribs and achenes similarly coloured 51. Tanacetum
Group E
Capitula discoid or disciform; receptacle paleaceous or long hairy; plants not spiny
1. Capitula bisexual
 2. Capitula small, 5-6 mm long, sometimes aggregated into compound heads; corollas minute, 2-3 mm long, inconspicuous
  3. Leaves entire; annuals
   4. Achenes and female corollas ± completely enclosed within paleae and always dispersed within them
    5. Paleae obviously toughened and hardened at maturity, galeiform (hooded), apex of female corolla emerging ± laterally; pappus absent
     6. Leaves alternate; capitula in clusters of 2-3, terminal or axillary; paleae very densely lanate, not crested 22. Bombycilaena
   4. Achenes free within concave paleae or achenes enfolded within plicate paleae and sometimes dispersed with them; female corollas free or enfolded within paleae
    7. Pappus absent from all achenes; acaulescent or procumbent plants, leaves ± rosetted 21. Evax [Filago]
    7. Pappus present at least on achenes of hermaphrodite and inner female flowers; plants caulescent, usually ascending or erect
     8. Hairs of pappus capillaceous throughout; capitula in rounded clusters of up to 60, terminal or axillary
      9. Paleae spoon shaped, broadened and usually somewhat saccate at base, attenuate but not strongly acuminate aristate at apex, stellately patent in fruit 20. Logfia [Filago]
      9. Paleae concave or navicular (boat shaped), not saccate at base, acute or acuminate aristate at apex, remaining ± erect in fruit 19. Filago
  3. Leaves divided; perennial herbs, subshrubs or rarely shrubs, aromatic 55. Artemisia
 2. Capitula larger, commonly 10 mm or more long, not usually aggregated into compound heads; corollas usually more than 3,5 mm long, conspicuous
  10. Flowers in axils of paleae or stiff bristles (not more than number of flowers); pappus never hairy
   11. Leaves opposite; pappus of 2-4 retrorsely barbed aristate; herbs of marshy ground 4. Bidens
   11. Leaves alternate; pappus otherwise
    12. Base of corolla tube downwardly produced into spongy appendages on either side of the achene and persistently enclosing it (densely white tomentose maritime perennials) 48. Otanthus
    12. Base of corolla tube otherwise
     13. Leaves ± vermiform, pinnatisect, segments usually closely conferted; apex of achene rounded, enclosed by pouched base of corolla tube 47. Santolina
     13. Leaves not vermiform, entire or pinnately divided
      14. Caulescent herbs, leaves not rosetted
       15. Style branches flattened, truncate at apex; leaves 1-2 pinnately divided 42. Anthemis
  10. Flowers surrounded at base by numerous receptacular brsitles or hairs; pappus, if present, mostly hairy
   16. Capitula heterogamous, marginal flowers neuter or rarely female, radiant or not (sometimes inconspicuous but always recognizable by absence of anther tube)
    17. Annuals or biennials
     18. Pappus of 5-15 lanceolate scales; leaves entire
      19. Inner phyllaries much longer than median ones, scarious and coloured above; pappus of 5-15 short scales included within involucre 89. Xeranthemum
     18. Pappus of numerous linear scales, bristles or hairs, or absent; leaves entire or divided
      20. Phyllaries with a conspicuous appendage; achenes ± glabrous at maturity or sometimes with a few hairs around hilum; hilum lateral without any whitish lip like protrusions at base
       21. Innermost pappus shorter or not differentiated, or pappus absent 79. Centaurea
      20. Phyllaries without a conspicuous appendage (sometimes with a hyaline margin); achenes velutinous or pubescent at maturity; hilım basal or, if lateral, with a thick whitish lip like protrusion at base
       22. Pappus mostly of bristles, innermost series consisting of 5-10 short blackish triangular scales; flowers purplish, marginal ones not strongly radiant 81. Crupina
    17. Perennial herbs
     23. Innermost pappus shorter or not differentiated; phyllaries appendaged of, if unappendaged, not blackish tipped 79. Centaurea
   16. Capitula homogamous or rarely heterogamous with functionally male marginal flowers
    24. Pappus absent; surface of achene somewhat wrinkled 83. Carthamus
    24. Pappus present; surface of achene ± smooth
     25. Phyllaries densely covered with yellowish tomentum 79. Centaurea
     25. Phyllaries not as above
      26. Appendages of phyllaries distinctly broader than their basal parts
       27. Rhizomatous herbs 45-130 cm tall; phyllaries with concave spoon shaped appendages 73. Rhaponticum
      26. Appendages of phyllaries, if present, not as above
       28. Pappus plumose
        29. Involucre usually more than 5 cm broad; phyllaries 1-1,5 cm broad at base, obtuse (cultivated) 57. Cynara
        29. Involucre less than 4 cm broad; phyllaries less than 0,75 cm broad at base, acute or acuminate
         30. Leaves pinnately divided; herbs 62. Cirsium
       28. Pappus not plumose
        31. Pappus consisting of undivided bristles or hairs; plants herbaceous (rarely suffrutescent)
         32. Leaves tomentose at least beneath
          33. Innermost series of pappus consisting of 2-3 longer and coarser brsitles; pappus persistent; caulescent (rarely acaulescent) herbs 69. Jurinea<
Group F
Capitula discoid or disciform; receptacle naked; plants not spiny
1. Capitula heterogamous disciform, i.e. filiform or minutely ligulate female flowers present outside the broader hermaphrodite ones
 2. Leaves radical, orbicular, cordate, usually developed after flowering; plants subdioecious; capitula in panicles on stems with scale like leaves 39. Petasites
 2. Leaves otherwise, developed before flowering; plants not subdioecious; capitula borne in various arrangements
  3. Pappus of hairs, scales or bristles at least on achenes of hermaphrodite flowers
   4. Achenes of hermaphrodite flowers bearing 2 weak bristles, achenes of female flowers epappose; annual usually with some lyrate pinnatisect leaves 34. Dichrocephala
   4. Achenes of all flowers bearing a pappus of hairs or scales
    5. Phyllaries herbaceous or, at most, inner ones with scarious margins; annuals and perennials
     6. Pappus surrounded by a series of minute scales at base; involucre 1 cm broad or less; leaves green, never grey or white tomentose 12. Pulicaria
     6. Pappus consisting of hairs only; involucre often more than 1 cm broad or, if smaller, then leaves grey or white tomentose
      7. Achenes ± terete, angular or obscurely ribbed; mostly perennials 11. Inula
      7. Achenes compressed with 2 marginal ribs; annuals or biennials
       8. Corollas of female flowers minutely ligulate, ± as long as pappus; cauline leaves linear lanceolate, usually less than 1 cm broad 33. Conyza
    5. Phyllaries conspicuously scarious margined or almost entirely scarious
     9. Pappus hairs numerous (more than 10); capitula few or numerous in dense corymbs, rarely solitary but then phyllaries brightly coloured
      10. Female flowers more numerous than hermaphrodite ones; phyllaries brownish or white 17. Gnaphalium
      10. Female flowers fewer than hermaphrodite ones; phyllaries yellow, straw coloured or orange, more rarely crimson or white 16. Helichrysum
  3. Pappus absent or reduced to a minute corona
   11. Achenes 3-4 mm with a glandular beak; leaves undivided 13. Carpesium
   11. Achenes 1 mm or less, unbeaked; leaves divided (rarely undivided in cultivation) 55. Artemisia
1. Capitula homogamous discoid, female flowers completely absent
 12. Capitula more than 1 flowered, not aggregated into compound heads; phyllaries not acuminate into a bristle
  13. Pappus of hairs; plants seldom aromatic
   14. Leaves opposite; tall perennial herbs 41. Eupatorium
   14. Leaves alternate or basal; mostly (except some Inula) medium sized or low growing herbs
    15. Capitula bisexual, containing hermaphrodite flowers only; basal leaves otherwise
     16. Involucre consisting of 1 series of equal phyllaries sometimes with shorter free calycular bracts near base 37. Senecio
     16. Involucre of 3 or more series, phyllaries ± imbricate
      17. Phyllaries, at least outer ones, herbaceous or cartilaginous, green or straw coloured, inner ones sometimes scarious
       18. Medium sized or tall herbs; leaves undivided; pappus persistent
        19. Achenes compressed, 2 ribbed 28. Crinitaria [Galatella]
        19. Achenes ± terete or angular, 4-5(-20) ribbed 11. Inula
      17. Phyllaries all scarious, whitish, yellow or orange (plants sometimes aromatic) 16. Helichrysum
  13. Pappus absent or coronate, not hairy; plants frequently aromatic
   20. Capitula small, 1-2 mm broad, often pendulous 55. Artemisia
   20. Capitula larger, ± erect
    21. Annuals, usually 15 cm tall or less
     22. Achenes weakly 3 ribbed posteriorly, ecoronate; leaves 2-3 pinnatisect 53. Matricaria
    21. Biennials or perennials more than 15 cm tall
     23. Achenes bearing 1-2 reddish brown glands anteriorly and 3 ribs posteriorly; leaves subglabrous, always finely dissected 54. Tripleurospermum
     23. Achenes 5-10 ribbed, reddish brown glands absent; leaves greyish tomentose; subentire or dissected 51. Tanacetum

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